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The article is written by Vishruti Chauhan, pursuing BA LLB from Symbiosis Law School, Hyderabad. It analyzes various aspects of domestic violence, its impact, causes, laws protecting women from the same and the prevention and response for the same on a global level. 

Introduction

The recent movie “Thappad” came as a blockbuster and created a spur of discussions all over the place. The issue of domestic violence is not something very recent and it has been there for centuries. What is surprising is that even today with the modernisation of the 21st century in play, this issue has not been resolved and the cases keep on increasing year by year. Discussions on such a common topic spur when movies are shown to have been describing the same. The same stir was made when movies like ‘Provoked’, ‘Agni Sakshi’ and ‘Suno’ were released. But the question is, do we understand the implications of domestic violence, its effects and the impact on future generations? Are our laws strict enough to punish the abuser? Are there any mechanisms or programs for the victims to help them in moving on with their lives? And the most important question is what is considered as Domestic Violence? 

In another movie ‘Akashvani’, there is a dialogue by the lead actress, who was suffering from mental domestic abuse, that “It is difficult to make them (parents) understand when there are no physical marks on the body”. It is very important to analyse and understand this part because in most parts of the world only physical injury is considered as domestic abuse, social and mental health abuse are not given much of an importance. 

What is domestic violence

Domestic violence can be described as a violent control which one person exercises over the other. It is also described as establishing control and fear in a relationship by different forms of abuse. It can range from psychological, sexual, economical to physical torture. This issue is not just a social issue but also a serious human right abuse factoring the victim to health and social risks. United Nations describes it as ‘intimate partner violence’ where the behavioural pattern of one person in a relationship is to gain control of the other by use of threat, emotional abuse, manipulation, hurting, injury or economical abuse and whose victim can be anyone regardless of age, gender, race, sexual orientation, class or faith. 

While discussing the issue of ‘domestic violence’, the criteria that comes to a person’s mind is a violent act between partners but the fact is that it can happen between any two people having a close legitimate relationship. It is something which might start as verbal abuse and excess dominating behaviour to physical and emotional torture that person. In cases where the abuser hits or physically tortures, it is easy to assess the violent behaviour for the victim, but in the majority of the cases, the victims don’t even recognise going through domestic abuse and just take their abuser as being dominating, strict, caring too much or being possessive for the victim. 

It is crucial to understand that domestic violence is not only between people who are spouses or partners and it can include several relationships that a person is bound by within a family. For example in India, the legal aspect has given it a wider interpretation and it includes sisters, widows, mothers, single women or any lady living in the same household. Thus, domestic violence includes intimate partners as well as family members. There are many forms in which domestic violence can be exercised such as controlling economic, sexual, psychological, stalking, social, physical abuse or threatening. The Domestic Abuse Intervention Project in Minnesota came up with a Power and Control Wheel which provided for abusive patterns of the perpetrators. Section 3 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 mentions that any act or omission done by the respondent which harms, injures, threatens or abuse physically, sexually, verbally or economically will commit an act of Domestic Violence. 

Women are said to be more prone to such abuse than men. A WHO survey conducted in 2013 analysed almost eighty countries and it was found that one in every three women experienced domestic violence. Another report from Home Office Research, which is a UK report on domestic violence and stalking, stated that over eighty percent of high-frequency victims are women. The old definition and concepts of domestic abuse were limited to abuse against women and the term was widely used in the context of violence against women as they were more prone to it. It was the patriarchal setup and dominance of men in the society that compressed it to that level. However, in modern times, the concept has become wider and has engulfed in itself the concept of violence against men as well. It is crucial to note that even when there are examples of domestic violence against men, the majority victims are still women and this is the reason that even today various countries define the act of domestic violence in respect to women being the victim. Even in the case of same-sex marriages or same-sex partners, the situation holds. 

What leads to domestic violence?

Impunity

One of the main reasons which lead to domestic violence is the attitude of the abuser. This becomes very much prevalent in countries where there is a large gender gap and patriarchy finds itself in a deep-rooted manner. The abuser thinks of himself to be exempted from the consequences of the acts that he has done. For example, he will be given immunity on the basis that he was drunk or drugged or was provoked for the same and in the end, it was the victim who should have kept calm over the situation. The abuser thinks of himself in a dominant situation where his actions will not be questioned. This can happen even in a well-educated family with urban upbringing as well and has no relation to a particular country or even gender. 

Desire to control

Some people are born with an attitude of dominating nature which cannot be said to be harmful as it comes under the ambit of human behaviour and natural differential nature between people. But the equation becomes wrong when one extends it to an extent where the voice of another person is not at all appreciated and is controlled to the extent that it is lost. It is very crucial to keep a mark between dominating nature and a desire to control the other person. Some people show the behaviour of desiring control over their partner which in turn makes them control their every move and if they face any issue or hindrance in the same they use violence to curb it. Desiring for such control makes a person hungry for more power and control and with time the violent methods are used to satisfy it. 

Lack of education

In a study by T. Lane, lack of education was one of the main factors linked with physical violence. In a survey carried out in Sivas, Turkey, it was found that 41.6% of women who expressed domestic violence had completed only primary schools. It is not a very important or strong factor as cases of domestic violence are deemed to exist in educated houses as well and that too in a very large number. However, basic education is very crucial for both the abuser and the victim. It prevents the abuser from thinking of doing any such action in the future and gives an edge to know the impact of the same. For a victim, it is necessary because it helps in understanding the acts which should not be borne and the actions which can be taken if the victim has to go through such situations. Education is the very essence and solution for almost all the problems of any human nature. For a domestic violence act, it cannot be said to be a very prominent factor but there is no doubt that it is one of the factors. 

Witnessing family violence as a child

This can cause major harm to both the victim and the abuser. Such a problem already existing in the family can cause a victim to think that this is how it is supposed to be and it is okay to bear such acts. On the other hand, it could inculcate in the mind of an abuser that it is justified for him to do such acts. 

A child goes through the most effective experiences of his/her life in childhood and it is the childhood memories that help in inculcating what a person becomes in future. Bringing up in an environment where a child already witnesses such acts is a huge blow to the future aspects. Such an unhealthy environment can bring the worst in a child and he/she may become extremely silent or extremely harsh. It is very difficult to inculcate a healthier thought afterwards and it takes a lot of effort for the same. Such psychological effects can further lead the child to indulge in drinking or taking drugs which are seen as an escape route for many. 

Previous history of being abused

Even a previously abused person can turn into an abuser himself in the future. It is very difficult to stop the vicious cycle. Once a person has gone through such violence, it is very much possible that he/she may accept such behaviour and turn into the predator to wear out the frustration and pain they had been feeling all alone. Similarly, if a victim has a previous history of abuse, likely, she/he won’t speak out against it. In such cases, the victim, who is already in pain due to previous relations, tends to lose hope and continues to suffer without voicing it out. Therefore, past experiences become very important. 

Low sense of self-worth

A person with a low sense of self-worth tends to vomit out his frustration on the victim. In such cases, the abuser, upset with his/her low self-esteem, tries to ease out his/her mind by degrading another person or insulting him/her or by abusing physically. It is the mental frustration that gets heavy on the head and it becomes impossible for some people to understand the proximity through which they should be talking or behaving towards the victim. The victim may as well build low self-esteem and feel that it is the right of the accused to abuse. The actions of the abuser may seem right to the victim in a situation where the victim goes through the phase of self-pettiness and self-loathing. 

The concept of male domination

The social structure that has been created in a society plays a very important role. The patriarchal system is one of the main reasons for such human rights violations and it is one of the main reasons that more than half of the domestic violence victims do not even consider themselves as victims. The attitude of male dominance and the sense of entitlement that is provided to men creates an illusion of women as someone who is underneath them and can be treated in whichever way they like to treat them. It is one of the most crucial problems. It is because of this sense of entitlement that a man considers his full control over a woman, whether financially, emotionally, physically or sexually. Even women are accustomed to being treated like this and most of them consider it to be natural to be abused or insulted by their male partners. 

Moreover, this sense of entitlement is not a new aspect in society and has been going on from generations thus, it becomes very difficult to erase it altogether. Men are brought up in a way which gives them a sense of superiority over women and thus they tend to treat women as their property. Due to such behaviour, the abuser thinks it is his right to treat the victim like this and the victim thinks it to be his right to treat her in an abusive manner. 

Cultural aspect

Culture of a specific place determines the functioning of society as a whole and thus domestic violence tends to accelerate in those places where culturally the women are not given an equal place with men. For Example, as per WHO’s report titled ‘Changing cultural and social norms that support violence’, in Nigeria and Sudan genital mutilation is a normal traditional practice; in India and China culturally it is accepted that a man has the right to use violence to discipline female behaviour; in Pakistan, divorce is seen as a shameful act; in Jordan, it is understood that a men’s honour is linked to women’s sexual behaviour; even in the USA, violence is seen to be prevalent and is understood as a right move to resolve conflict. Thus, on a cultural basis, there are many places which do not treat women with respect and they are considered as inferior to men which further accelerates the violence against women. 

Insecurity and possessiveness 

It is very much possible for the abuser to be of excessive possessive nature and insecure with the relationship he/she is sharing with the victim. Such insecurity and possessiveness sometimes result in harassing the victim mentally by keeping records of everything the victim is doing. To establish control, the abuser tends to keep an eye on the victim and take all the decisions of the house in his capacity. 

Mental illness 

Further, insanity or mental illness is another kind of a situation where the abuser tends to be delusional and harasses the victim on the pretext of the same. Persons with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression may take out their frustration through such abuse by controlling another person. 

The implication of domestic violence on health

Domestic violence is the biggest health concern all around the world for the very reason of its magnitude and inefficiency in reaching every door to curb the same. There are various physical and mental health problems which are inflicted on the victims of domestic violence. 

The major effect on the health of the victim is mental health, which is the most prominent, due to atrocities and harm inflicted on him/her. The victim can have suicidal thoughts and that results in the victim’s action in harming herself/himself. Depression and anxiety are other problems which can be a result of domestic violence. It is found to be most prominent among other issues because, in most of the cases, the victim tends to suffer the harm by the abuser without revolting against it and thus having an emotional gap inside them which turns it into anxiety and depression. It is difficult to recognise the acts of domestic violence through these issues because a person’s mental health is tricky and it might be difficult to assess the same, majority of the time. Many of the victims also face post-traumatic stress disorder due to the violence inflicted upon them. Other issues include phobia of certain things which might contribute to the mental health degradation of the victim. Further, there can be health-harming behaviour such as the use of drugs or drinking problems or using excessive painkillers. 

As already mentioned, such acts of violence are mostly implicated on women and they are the victims in the majority of the cases. In case of women along with the mental health, there are other health risks such as unwanted pregnancy in many cases or abortion due to any injury. In the case of pregnancy, there could be a problem of poor weight gain, vaginal issues, infection, anaemia, low birth weight of the infant, malnutrition child, etc. Other than these, there are more gynaecological problems which can be associated with women. There are various sexually terminated diseases like sexually transmitted infections or HIV which can also be caused due to such harm done to the victim.

Other issues include heart problems, digestive problems, trouble sleeping, physical injuries like bruises and burns, irritable bowel syndrome, headaches, memory loss, repeated unconsciousness and degrading immune system. It has been analysed and concluded in research in the United States that women who are prone to domestic violence were five times more likely to commit suicide than the other women. It has also been analysed that in the majority of cases chronic pelvic pain was associated with domestic violence history. It is not only the victim but even in abusers, the mental health deteriorates. In some cases of excessive insecurity and possessiveness, the abuser deals with mood swings and excessive emotional state which in turn affects his mental health that can result in insanity as well. 

Emotional and psychological violence

Emotional abuse is the most difficult form of abuse to be diagnosed and be solved. It is due to the complexities of human behaviour that it becomes very hard to recognise the same, in some cases, even for the victims themselves. Emotional abuse creates a sense of self-doubt in the minds of the victim. The victim goes through a burden of self-loathing, guilt and worthlessness. This can lead to serious health problems as well such as depression, anxiety issues, eating disorders and heart problems. The UN Report of 2013 found that the number of women who were found to be sexually abused was indicating sexually transmitted infection and HIV, 1.5 times more than women who had not experienced domestic violence. Even the abortions were found to be twice in number in domestic violence cases. 

There are ways through which the abuser can inflict emotional and psychological violence on the victim- 

Criticising

This is the most common method and is used in most households. The abuser criticises the victim and tries to look down on him/her. The abuser tries to humiliate and insult the victim, even in the presence of other people. They try to intimidate the victim and neglect their feelings. Sarcasm and public embarrassment are other tools used to let down the self-confidence of the victim. It is a tricky method and it may confuse the victim sometimes who have even full knowledge about the emotional abuses. These characteristics may be a part of one’s character and behaviour but it has to be noticed whether these patterns are more than normal. People tend to ignore the same for the sake of good or at least that’s what they think because they are taught like this. 

A very crucial example is from the movie ‘Thappad’ where the character Advocate Netra Jaisingh very aptly captured the same emotional abuse where her husband belittles her in everything and tries to insult her and discredit her for her success. It is very important to realise that such a scenario is very common in many countries and households where such things are not talked about and people refrain from taking any action against it because it seems to be too little a problem in front of physical violence. In South Asian and African countries, this happens to be a very minute problem and not even a problem for many. 

Neglecting

Neglecting and isolating is another way of disturbing the mental peace of the victim. The abuser shows lack of affection and attention towards the victim and derives the victim into thinking that it is his/her fault. The abuser tries to show his controlling side and feels good to be the one directing the behaviour of the victim through his silence. 

Acting superior

The attitude of controlling the victim is one of the main aspects of domestic violence. The abuser tries to control the actions of the victim and this can be done in various ways, whether it is financial control, decision making of the house or even controlling the movement of the victim. Such a superiority complex leads the abuser to go to extends where he/she can threaten the victim, order or even monitor by various means. This becomes suffocating for the victim and creates a scenario of self-doubting and sense of being watched on 24/7. In some cases, the abuser may use other people as well to discredit the opinion of the victim. 

Accusing

Blaming the victim for everything is one of the major tools used to abuse. In such situations, the abuser can demand unrealistic expectations and then if not done, blames it on the victim deciphering his/her unworthiness. The abuser uses guilt and weak emotional points of the victim and makes him/her think that it is his/her fault. In many cases, the abuser can show the behaviour of destroying the materials near him and not inflicting a physical injury to the victim but creating an environment of control and abusiveness. 

Emotional blackmail

This is the most prevalent form of emotional abuse. The abuser tries to put his emotional behaviour ahead of the victim’s and belittle him/her by accusing them of not being able to take care of the abuser’s emotion. It is very difficult to recognise and escape from such sort of emotional abuse because it creates a boundary even for the most educated and aware person to think about the mental health of their partner or another close person. The person can use other ways as well such as keeping the victim from socialising with other people, bashing with comments like too needy or too emotional or sensitive. 

Gaslighting 

It is a concept which means that the person manipulates another person emotionally and psychologically to the extent that the person starts doubting his/her sanity. This kind of situation happens when a person creates various conditions to doubt the sanity of the victim and keep the victim aloof from other people who could be a positive environment in such an event. It is a very slow process and the abuser tries to make situations to make the victim self-doubt one-self. Through this, the abuser tries to control the mentality and the actions of the victim. 

Codependence

It is a very dangerous situation, where the victims feel unable to walk out of such relationships thinking it as a need for them as well. This happens when the victim starts giving attention to their partner’s wishes rather than their own and starts neglecting their instincts for the sake of their partner. Some people realise the wrongs that are being done to them but fear the alternatives that lie ahead of them and do not dare to start a new life. Such victims do not make contact with their parents or friends and depend on their partner in every way. It has also been found that in many cases the victim feels the emotion of self worthlessness and thus blames oneself for every mistake that may happen in the house. Due to such conditions, the relation of abuser and victim becomes a never-ending cycle which is very difficult to break after a point of time. 

Impact on children

Domestic violence has a very lasting effect on children and it gives rise to child abuse as well. WHO report of ‘World Report on Violence and Health’ stated that among the child abuse cases, 40% of the cases were with a background of domestic violence. Children facing domestic violence at home are more prone to child abuse and it differs for children of different age group as well. A child of four years will react differently to the issue than a fourteen-year-old. There are three basic impacts which a child can face if brought up in a home of domestic violence-

Physical Impact

There can be a physical impact on a child which may be caused due to physical beating or sexually abusing. Physical pain is the pain which remains for a long time and it can affect a child in many ways. Physical damage can be done to an unborn as well. If a woman is tortured during the pregnancy period, it is very much possible that even the child is affected by it. Such a child can be born malnutrition or premature or with low weight. Such a baby can have mental problems in future. For younger children not going to school, the physical pain may inflict bruises at an early age and may weaken the appetite and growth of a child. For a teenager, the anger nature can become an issue and the teenager may seem to retaliate any physical beating by using violence. 

Behavioural impact

A child may be affected severely on a behavioural level. A young child may suffer from numbness and being not talkative, bedwetting, crying a lot more than usual, thumb sucking or hiding in some space. Such acts can cause severe headaches to children and may result in irritating behaviour. Teenagers are the most affected by such violence and they tend to show either very aggressive or numb behaviour. They develop a sense of violence as they have been watching at home and try to frustrate out by fighting with people. It is difficult for such children to make friends with anyone. They also seem to have poor concentration and share no emotions. Such children may end up having unprotected sexual relations or drinking or drugging problems and may have a pessimistic approach towards the future. 

Emotional impact 

In cases of domestic violence, mental health is the one which is most affected, even for a child. A young child may face anxiety, sadness, loneliness and feel guilty for the violence that takes place before his/her own eyes. Terror and fear are common aspects which engulf a child stuck in a home with domestic violence. For teenagers, it is their most crucial point of life, agewise, and when inflicted with harm in a family, they tend to show anger, grief, sadness, numbness or exaggerated talk, etc. The child may suffer from depression, anxiety and may inflict suicidal thoughts. It becomes easier for such children to be close to other people than their family and they try to find comfort outside their homes. Furthermore, this cycle may continue for the next generation as well. A boy might find it easier to take out his frustration on his partner and a girl child may find it right to bear such pain that is being inflicted upon her. It is also very possible that such children suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Children may also step up in bullying others or become a target themselves. Insomnia, self-harm and low self-confidence are other impacts on the children. 

The social and economic effect

Domestic Violence is social abuse. It is not a story of just one house but many and society as a whole need to address the same. The crime of domestic violence affects society as a whole and determines the ability and well being of future generations as well. Thus, it becomes important that it is seen as a social approach to help such homes. Domestic Violence has a long-lasting effect on the victim and it can result in their isolation from the society as a whole. The children that grow in such an environment either become numb or show angered behaviour which is not healthy for any society. Such women tend to keep a distance from society by making a bubble around them which makes them unaware and they divulge deep into isolation which again results in mental health problems.

Victims also suffer from economic loss. For physical pains, the medical costs are always on their head and for a repetitive offence, the bills can be a huge amount. Furthermore, in many cases, the victim is forced to leave the job and sit at home which creates economic insecurity, poor credit and makes them dependent on the abuser for money. This may disrupt their ability to work in future as well. 

Laws to protect women against domestic violence

The USA

The Violence Against Women Act was enacted in the year 1994 to improve the condition of women concerning domestic and sexual violence. It provided funds for the creation of various shelter homes for the victims and started various programs which helped in reaching out to the masses. In further years, the scope was expanded to dating violence and stalking. In addition to this in 1996, a further law was enacted, the Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban, which banned the transfer, ownership, shipment of guns by a person who has been convicted for domestic violence or under a restraining order for the same. 

Apart from this, there are state laws in the USA which follow their respective laws. For example, there is the Domestic Violence Prevention Act, 2004 in New York, which provides for various provisions including providing shelter homes to the victims of such offences. Minnesota has a Domestic Abuse Act, which creates a civil remedy for an Order of protection. 

The landmark case of Thurman v. the City of Torrington brought a national reform in domestic laws in the USA and gave rise to the Family Violence Prevention and Response Act in 1986. The victim had sued the town and the police for violating her civil rights and alleged that the police had ignored the complaints and failed to take the action against her husband when he acted violently against her. The Court recognised the rights of the victim and held the husband guilty in case of domestic violence. The new said act in place brought out the greatest reform and provided that domestic violence is an arrestable offence and it will be done even if the victim doesn’t want to press charges against the abuser. 

Europe

EU’s first comprehensive framework for the protection of women against domestic violence was ‘Istanbul Convention’ (Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence) and it provided provisions and principles for protecting women and punishing the abusers. Further, The Treaty on Functioning of the European Union also defines domestic violence as a major aspect and derives a commitment of the members to make laws combating it. Domestic physical violence and sexual violence are the main offences punishable under these provisions but for any other such offence such as domestic psychological abuse, each country has its law. The UK has even established separate courts for cases with violence against women.

In the case of Opuz v. Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights had recognised the importance of State duty and interference in matters of Domestic Violence. In this case, the applicant and her mother were abused by the husband of the applicant. The continuous violence had led to the death of the mother. Even after complaining to the police, the husband was let free by paying a fine. The Court recognised that it is the duty of the State to safeguard the victim in the cases of domestic violence The State had failed to take action upon the same. It was held to be the statutory duty of the State to take action on such abusers of domestic violence. 

India

India also has a separate law only for protecting women against domestic violence that is The Prevention of Women Against Domestic Violence Act, 2005. The Acts cover women living in live-in-relationships as well and provide a remedy for any physical, mental, financial or sexual violence. The Act provides for various rights that a woman has even after she wants to be separated from the family on grounds of domestic abuse. Further, Section 498 A of the Indian Penal Code criminalises any act of harassing the lady in the house, either physically or mentally, for dowry. The provisions provided cover almost every aspect of mental or physical health in case of domestic violence. 

In the case of Sandhya Wankhade v. Manoj Bhimrao Wankhade, the issue in question was of the definition of ‘respondent’ as provided under Section 2 (q) of the Domestic Violence Act of 2005 as the definition provides expressly males as respondents. The Court interpreted the proviso provided under the section and held that female relatives of the husband are also included under the ambit of respondents. 

In another case of D. Veluswamy v. D. Patchaiammal, under Section 2 (a) of the Domestic Violence Act, 2005, the scope of ‘aggrieved person’ was widened. The Court enumerated five ingredients for a live-in-relationship and provided that the same provisions of domestic violence will be applied to live-in-relationship as applied in marriage or other domestic relations. 

Prevention and response

Economic opportunity

Economic stability is very crucial in any person’s life and thus even for a woman, it is a crucial aspect. In countries where shelter homes are not adequate or where laws are not implemented in a strict sense, it should be tried to provide jobs and economic opportunities to women so that they can stand on their own feet and realise the importance of their own identity. It is crucial for the prevention of such cases. 

In response to the offence that has already been committed, the economic opportunity should be provided to a woman so that she can start a new life with economic stability. Many shelter homes and NGOs and even government programs are constituted in various countries to achieve this goal. 

Mentor

Mentoring is an important tool, both used for prevention as well as response. It is crucial to make children understand from teenage the complexities, laws and harms of domestic violence and this mentoring becomes very necessary for future purposes. In response to an offence done, the victim should be made comfortable and strong by mentoring. Emotional strength is very much needed when a person comes out of such relationships and it is also important to fill the victim’s hopes with a positive attitude. 

Organised community program

Community programs are very efficient as they are particular programs for this specific purpose only and thus it is easy to target the victims and help them. These community programs also help in providing jobs and shelter to the victims who have nowhere to go after leaving the house. These community programs are also very crucial as they can have the data of all the victims as well as the abuser and thus it helps in statistics as well. 

Family support

It is very important to have family support in such cases. The victim should have confidence in her family and should be able to cry out things in front of them. This brings to another aspect of family upbringing where the family should make sure that the child is aware of the types of abuses and the remedy of the same. Even after the crimes have been done, family support becomes very important. 

Legislation removing gender inequality

Providing equal opportunities to women in place of jobs and other fields like sports will further enhance the empowerment of women and will help in standing up for herself so that she will not feel self-unworthiness. And not just for women, even for men there must be equal opportunities. However, in some countries like India and China, there are more atrocities towards women and thus special provisions are provided in the legislation for them. 

Providing gender equality education

Sex education and gender equality issue are very necessary to inculcate in students and not just in a part of a book to read and learn but through extracurricular activities and seminars so that the students have a clear and deep knowledge of the type of behaviour that they are supposed to be showing. This may help children in whose homes such offences take place, as they may realise it on other platforms that such activities are harmful, and thus the vicious cycle of the passing of abusive behaviour from generation to generation can be broken down. 

Awareness

Awareness should be spread about the issue through different means of media and communication and the health sector should be strengthened to combat and provide for more suitable medical assurances to the victims. 

Conclusion

Analysing the various factors involved in domestic violence, it can be concluded that the major and deep-rooted problem of this issue is the mentality and attitude of superiority in major cases. This is the main reason why women are more prone to such crimes than men. The patriarchal set-up that has been there for centuries is still prevalent and can find its place in developed nations as well. However, with advancing times there are slight changes in this aspect and abuses against men can also be seen. This applies to same-sex marriages or partners as well. Therefore, it is important to inculcate the knowledge of laws and the attitude issues in the children from the beginning. There is a need to make awareness in society about the laws about domestic abuse and to make stringent steps so that the law is implemented properly. In the event of such crimes, proper compensations, facilities and training programs should be made available to help the victim in the future. 

References


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