racial differences
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This article is written by Anusha Misra from NALSAR University of Law. This article looks into racial differences that arise through public laws.


Equality is not a specific term. It means nothing unless it is applied to a specific context. Hence in the political context equality amounts to equal treatment under the law and equal access to public office. Race on the other hand is a social construct. In the biological sense, the race has no meaning but society continues to back the notion by terming race as a social category. India is a land of multiplicity yet all ethnicities are not treated equally. Racism, prejudices, and hate crimes stem from stereotypical beliefs that the majority holds. Lack of awareness and less exposure to different cultures significantly impacts how people of different orientations get along. Racism as an ideology has not been formally recognised by the governments. However unfortunate events have added fuel to fire and have led to protests seeking justice against racism. These movements need to be recognised at the grass-root level to be empowered. 

Racial differences: the growing concern 

Racial differences in India have been on the rise recently. Listed below are the reasons why racism is so prevalent in India.

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Racism due to the concept of an out-group

Different countries have different tangents concerning being more tolerant racially. In most countries people are more self-indulgent and individual identity is given primacy over group identity. In India, after independence, not many people from different nationalities have settled here. Thus, the interactions of Indians with people from other nationalities are limited. The foreigners living in India are thought to be outsiders who do not exist within the Indian strata. This often leads to hostility and xenophobia towards foreigners. 

Racism as an act of retribution

Indians are often discriminated against in other countries. Moreover, stereotypes against Indians make matters worse. Thus, leads to a sense of insecurity and also leads people to be infuriated. 

Racism due to diversity in identity

Racism as a practice in India is also prevalent amongst Indian communities. Due to a variance in regional diversity, many communities are pitted against each other. There have been many instances where North-East Indians have been discriminated against by the rest of the Indians.

Racism due to lack of sensitisation

Due to the lack of sensitisation people are not able to overcome their mindset or their prejudices. They are given no push in the right direction, that is the direction towards changing and overcoming their inherent bias. In addition to that, the government has not put in place a framework that prevents racial intolerance in India. 

Racism in eastern countries as opposed to racism in western countries

Racism as a concept does not stem from the Indian psyche. However, no nation is close to achieving a utopia wherein the citizens behave ideally. The fact that a society’s conduct amounts to or does not amount to racism can be decided only by consciousness amongst the masses on a collective level. The concept of the ‘Other’ stems from Western civilization.

The history of India and the psychology of India’s masses have remained stagnant since time immemorial. During the freedom struggle, movement leaders initiated a secularised struggle against the colonial rulers however there was no apparent xenophobia. Indians did not seem to have a problem when George Yule and William Wedderburn were appointed as the president of the Indian National Congress (INC) even though they were westerners.

Historically India was not averse to people of different races or creeds. However, of late there has been a rise in racial differences. 

Public Law – how one perceives them 

Public law refers to the law that governs relations between citizens and a government, between distinct institutions present in a state, between different branches of governments, and relations between citizens. Public law consists of administrative law, constitutional law, criminal law, tax law, and procedural law.

Laws that treat one set of people differently from others need not always be unconstitutional. Legal discrimination as a concept is not foreign concerning governance. For example, in many states, one must be eighteen years or older to smoke cigarettes and twenty-one and older to drink alcohol. Thus, such laws discriminate against the young. 

Highlighting the lost purpose of Public Law 

To understand the lost purpose of the law, the author aims to establish so by giving primacy to North-East Indians. 

It has additionally been contended that North Eastern Citizens can look for assurance under SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, Article 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution and Section 153-A of Indian Penal Code, 1860. However, first and foremost, not all North-Eastern residents are individuals from the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes Community, in this manner; they fall outside the domain of the SC/ST Act, 1989. At the point when we take a look at the Statistics of North Eastern Region delivered by the Government, we find that extent of SC and ST to add up to populace in Sikkim is 4.6% and 33.8% individually; for Assam, it is 7.5% and 12.4%; for Manipur, it is 3.8% and 35.1%. Besides, as seen by the Bezbaruah Committee, while there are numerous laws, there is nobody’s exact law that covers the kind of occurrences they are presented to. As per the Committee, in the short run, changes to IPC ought to be made, for example, Use of criminal power against individuals of a specific racial beginning and Section 509-A (Word, signal or act expected to affront an individual from a specific racial gathering or of any race), in any case, over the long-haul interest for an Anti-Racial law ought to be discussed. The Committee suggested that such enactment ought to incorporate at any rate these particular arrangements: 

1. The offence ought to be cognizable and non-bailable;

 2. The examination of the FIR ought to be finished within 60 days by an exceptional cell; 

3. The preliminary ought to be finished within 90 days.

A step forward toward this path was the presentation of the Anti-Discrimination and Equality Bill, 2016 by MP Shashi Tharoor. Though this bill didn’t manage racial segregation and included different components like sexual direction, conjugal status also, it merits referencing because of its detail and acknowledgment of the fact that North-Eastern Indians and people of African origin are particularly vulnerable in India.

Possible solutions and what the future awaits 

Common human rights ideals are the main antidote to the persistence of racism

The acceptance of universal standards on human rights and fundamental freedoms is a clear register of human progress over the past half-century. That of course does not mean that such standards are everywhere achieved in practice or even believed in by all who exercise governmental power. International law, however, protects against violation and insists that States must provide remedies when such violation occurs. Any form of racism or racial discrimination contradicts these human rights ideals and standards. On a personal level, each of us can demonstrate our commitment to human rights and its core message that we are all equal in rights and human dignity and all unique in our attributes and personality. We can do that by refusing and challenging racist remarks or actions in daily life. We can campaign with others for the implementation of equal treatment laws wherever we live and for the promotion of human rights education. Whether we are members of majorities or minorities, we can learn more about those who are different from us in ethnic origin, religion, language, culture, or nationality.

A considerable research effort is required to acquire the knowledge needed for effective anti-discrimination policies

At the point when governments and different specialists gather populace insights – like birth, passing conjugal status, schooling, wellbeing, or other information – such data should be gathered by reference to nationality, sex, citizenship status, or to different groupings known to be identified with the experience of separation. If there is just a single human race, why name individuals by classes, for example, ‘dark’, ‘white’, ‘mestizos’, ‘Asian’, ‘Bedouin’, ‘outsider’ etc? The inquiry should be posed and to be replied to. One answer may be that in the best of potential universes it is desirable to keep away from such names, at the same time, as a few specialists clarify, without such information it is absurd to expect to know the full idea of the segregation happening in any general public, nor to attempt exploration or devise and screen compelling reactions to it. There must be that as it may, shield during the time spent assembling and utilizing such data. The Durban Program of Action, which embraced the requirement for disaggregated information assortment, properly calls for data to be “gathered with the express assent of the people in question, in light of their self-ID” and steady with common freedoms guidelines securing protection. Yet, to work without disaggregated information is to work in obscurity.

Overcoming the effects of discrimination requires affirmative measures

Equality of opportunities can’t be given exclusively by broad certifications of correspondence of chance and political and social investment or by widespread approaches of admittance to essential administrations like training, medical services, lodging, and business. These are the fundamental establishment of uniformity. International common liberties principles support what are named governmental policy regarding minorities in society arrangements or unique measures, where these are planned rigorously to address imbalances of the past and are for a restricted period. Any such means ought to be delicate to the worries of greater parts, including the individuals who are themselves poor and hindered and who may decipher such arrangements as addressing shamefulness to them. It is conceivable, in any case, to devise social measures and activity that intends to address survivors of chronic rejection from which all addiction is drawn out, not least as far as more effective multicultural and multiracial popularity based social orders. In any case, it ought to be perceived that governmental policy regarding minorities in society can pressure gatherings and people inside bunches as in the present moment there will be champs and failures with such arrangements. 


Schooling and the instruction framework are, in the long haul, the imperial street to create an adjustment of perspectives. They are the place where information, learning, and qualities are procured, where insight and pictures are passed on and flourish, and, as needs are, the place where the standards of pluralism and exchange should above all else be immovably ingrained. Intercultural schooling is in this sense a therapy, compelling individual people groups and societies to see themselves, question assurances, destroy obstructions, and break out of their insularity. By a similar token, correspondence, the vehicle for developing and projecting one’s mental self-view and one’s picture of the ‘other’, should similarly be intercultural, to have the option to give substantial expression to the requirement for discourse and trade epitomized in Sean Mac Bride’s splendid articulation “Numerous Voices – One World”.


This future is probably not going to be just about as revolting as the past, because the case for formal isolation and clear racial separation won’t return. It doesn’t simply involve envisioning the annihilation of past types of prejudice. Nor does it mean envisioning a colourblind world. In fact, in the as yet ruling sound judgment of liberal multiculturalism, loaded with its variety drives and affectability preparing, populating the world with an assorted arrangement of entertainers and surprisingly testing suppositions of white advantage is sufficient. Famous movies and visual culture are loaded up with pictures of multiracial perspectives in which race doesn’t make any difference or prejudice has been perceived as a paradox. However, all-around frequently this visual culture— where we regularly go to figure out how to envision the future — recode the presence of variety inside new rationales of racial separation. Envisioning a multiracial future isn’t equivalent to envisioning an antiracist future. Lastly requires testing the advancement of prejudice as it multiplies and changes our very ability to envision what’s to come.


  1. https://www.sfmoma.org/read/can-we-imagine-anti-racist-future/
  2. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/DimensionsRacismen.pdf 

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