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This article is written by Utkarsh Singh, from Amity Law School, Noida. This is an exhaustive article that deals with the blowout that took place at Baghjan Oil Field in Assam and how the fire that followed destroyed the habitat around due to an act of criminal negligence. 


Negligence means ‘carelessness’. When a person is negligent, he commits an act that he could foresee, however, he continues to do it causing harm, injury, damage or loss to somebody or something. Let us see an example to understand Negligence- when a person is drunk and driving his car at a high speed, meets with an accident causing damage to another vehicle coming it is way will be considered negligence on part of the drunk driver. After all, he violated two criminal laws about drinking and driving that too at a high speed and then he damaged someone’s car because he was careless. It is not necessary that only one person is required to commit a tort of negligence, a group of people, an agency, a company or an organisation together can also be held responsible for criminal negligence. 

The fire disaster at the Baghjan Oil Field located at the Tinsukia District in Assam took place recently was an act of criminal negligence on the part of the Oil Authority that had adverse effects on the people living in the nearby villages as their houses were burnt down and some of them are still living in relief camps that were set up after this incident. The blowout that was caused after a two-week leakage of gas in that area left a harmful impact on the environment, disturbing the natural habitation of that place.  The fire and condensate spillage has damaged farmlands, tea estates and has threatened the wildlife and aquatic species in the eco-sensitive area. Such accidents are not only a grave reminder of the inadequate safety measures and the implementation of safety standards at oil and gas installations but also, the need for stronger laws that can handle such situations. Let us take a look at the events that led to the spread of fire and how the authorities were criminally negligent. 


The Oil India Limited (OIL) declared on twentieth May 2020 that the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF) had given its leeway for augmentation penetrating and testing of hydrocarbons in seven areas at the Tinsukia locale in Assam. It was morning as common on May 27 for the individuals of Baghjan town in Tinsukia locale of Assam, when they heard a stunning sound. Some at the first idea was the sound of a fly plane or helicopter flying near the surface, accepting that maybe a clergyman may have shown up to screen the flood circumstance in the zone.

For reasons unknown, the sound was of a victory, an unexpected and uncontrolled arrival of gas/oil from a delivering great under Baghjan oilfield, worked by the open division unit Oil India Limited (OIL), around a kilometre away from the town. Be that as it may, even as Oil India Limited (OIL) authorities and architects mixed to contain the release, a fire broke out on Tuesday evening, birthing a transcending inferno at the site. The oil well exists in a 10-kilometre span of the Dibru Saikhowa National Park and Bhajan-Borajan-Padumoni Wildlife Sanctuary, other than being directly close to the Magura-Motapung wetland (1 km from the site) — an Important Bird Area (IBA). More than 2,000 individuals living around the field have been moved to help camps since the victory happened.

How does Blowout Occur?

The wonder of a victory can be effectively comprehended from the working of a weight cooker in our kitchens. At the point when the weight controller on the top continues working it discharges the steam created inside in a controlled manner. 

On the off chance that for certain reasons, the weight controller gets expelled then steam will spout out of the cooker through the vent pipe in full weight. At that point, it gets hard to control the weight. If a comparable circumstance happens in an oil/gas well then it is depicted as a victory. 

For raw petroleum and gas, a well is bored like a channel into the arrangements up to the profundity where topographical models and translations uncover the most extreme chance of hydrocarbons. 

This zone is known as the store regarding geography and penetrating. The store holds the oil under tension developed because of the profundity from the head of the dirt. In this way, normally, any liquid under tension will, in general, come out with power at whatever point it gets an exit plan. Presently, while boring an oil or a gas well, to control this progression of oil and gas from the repository, a specific liquid of determined explicit gravity is siphoned through the funnels. Borehole pressure which is because of the segment of liquid ought to consistently surpass the arrangement pressure during penetrating. If this development pressure, for reasons unknown, gets more noteworthy than the borehole pressure gas, oil or water go into the borehole, which is then known as Kick. If no move is made to stop the inundation of liquid once it starts, at that point, the entirety of the penetrating mud will be pushed out of the borehole and the development liquids will be streaming in an uncontrolled way at the surface causing a victory. 

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At the point when any sign of losing pressure commands over the well, the move must be made at the earliest to deflect the serious results of a victory. These outcomes include:

  1. Loss of human life
  2. Loss of rig and equipment
  3. Damage to the Reservoir
  4. Damage to the environment
  5. The huge cost of bringing the well under control again.

To keep a fire from gripping the blowout, OIL had been spraying water over the area to keep temperatures down, assisted by a spate of rains as well. But June 9 was a particularly dry day and somewhat warm, both conditions thought to have encouraged a spark.

After the fire

The burst at the Oil India Ltd’s oil very much was monstrous to such an extent that it tends to be seen from a separation of multiple kilometres. A few fire tenders from Oil India Limited, ONGC, and Tinsukia and Dibrugarh areas raced to the spot. An organization representative said while no setback was accounted for in the episode, one ONGC worker endured minor wounds. There were fights in the territory as the fire broke out, compromising the lives and vocation of the individuals previously confronting the effect of the victory throughout the previous fourteen days amid the Covid-19 emergency. In any event, 15 fire tenders were on the spot to soak the fire, while fortifications from the Indian Air Force are being kept on reserve. The Assam government sent a group of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), local authorities, police and paramilitary powers to manage the circumstance.

After Assam CM Sarbananda Sonowal made a solicitation to Defense Minister Rajnath Singh, Indian Air Force has additionally hurried its fire tenders to soak the fire breakout at Baghjan oil field. The specialists chose to contact Singapore based firm M/s Alert Disaster Control, specialists in controlling victory. Three individuals from the Singapore based firm Alert, who have come in to deal with the emergency, communicated that it is currently a sheltered domain for working and they are sure that the well can be topped securely. An announcement discharged by OIL stated, “The circumstance requests a plan of enormous amounts of water, the establishment of high release siphons and expulsion of flotsam and jetsam. All the activities according to Alert will take around a month.

Endeavours will be made to decrease t; time however much as could be expected.”. The bodies of two firemen, both of whom were workers of OIL, were recuperated from a lake close to the site by National Disaster Response Force (NDRF). The firemen have been recognized as Tikheswar Gohain and Durlov Gogoi, both of whom were absent since Tuesday evening after the fire broke out. Assam’s central clergyman Sarbananda Sonowal additionally requested an investigation into the Baghjan victory and resulting fire.

The head administrator Narendra Modi guaranteed remuneration for all the misfortunes endured by the individuals because of the fire. Naming the victory, criminal carelessness with respect to the Oil authority, Sustha Samaj Bikash Chakra president Apurba Kumar Baruah stated, “With over a time of oil investigations in Assam and procuring extraordinarily enormous incomes by the Govt of India and benefit by organizations, the adventurers (both Government and private) couldn’t build up the aptitude to control such crises.

That itself should be wrongdoing.” Baruah focused on that the Ministry of Petroleum and Gas can’t get away from culpability. “Criminal procedures ought to be drawn for the carelessness of obligation with respect to Oil authorities in-control, the debacle the executive’s branches of both Oil and nearby organization for neglecting to make brief strides and, especially, OIL for not creating required mastery in every one of these long stretches of investigations to the arrangement will crises of this sort,”.

What is Criminal Negligence?

Carelessly acting without sensible alert and putting someone else in danger of injury or passing (or neglecting to accomplish something with similar results. 

The term Negligence is gotten from the Latin word careless, which signifies ‘neglecting to get’. In the general sense, the term carelessness implies the demonstration of being reckless and in the legitimate sense, it means the inability to practice a standard of care which the practitioner as a sensible man ought to have practised in a specific circumstance. Carelessness in English law rose as an autonomous reason for activity just in the eighteenth century. Additionally in Indian law, the IPC, 1860 contained no arrangement for causing the demise of an individual by carelessness which was in this way corrected in the year 1870 by embeddings area 304A. 

Some of the time, circumstances emerge in which there exists no legally binding connection between two gatherings, neither composite nor suggested. These circumstances are polite and where there exists a legally binding relationship that is the place the idea of criminal obligation emerges.

Elements of Negligence

  1. Duty of Care: This implies there exists an obligation of care in all that you do. The activity of an individual is tried upon whether any judicious man would have done likewise in the comparable conditions, in this manner the obligation of care intends to take sensible consideration of what you are doing.
  2. Breach of Duty of care: It is the penetrating of the obligation of care which ought to be available in the careless demonstration, which implies that if the demonstration is finished with the sensible consideration and assurance as some other reasonable man would do, at that point there emerges no inquiry of the carelessness being into question.
  3. There must be an injury or harm caused: Presently, the third significant component that should be contemplated is that there should be a physical issue, damage or misfortune to the individual due to the break of the obligation of care for the next individual. Hence, the careless demonstration will go to the perception of the court just when the injury is caused to the individual.
  4. The injury or harm caused must be as a result of the breach of duty of care: This implies the past demonstration of the injury being caused is finished to be called a careless act when it has been done as a result of the break of the obligation to take care for the next. In this way, it is the point at which the other individual neglects to play out their obligation towards the other, which some other reasonable man would do in the standard course of circumstance, and injury is caused to the individual due to the inability to deal with the other, carelessness is said to have been submitted.

Negligence on the Part of the Authorities

When pleadings are recorded, a whirlwind of utilizations follows including applications for disclosure and creation. Accordingly, until the issue of creation is chosen, the procedures can’t go on. Consequently, on the concurred dates of hearing for confining issues, parties widen on either the part of recording further pleadings, since they have overshot timetables or on the issue of creation and revelation of archives. This is then trailed by a solicitation to document an answer to the application for the creation and a new arrangement of dates are fixed for the reasons for arbitration of the application.

Accordingly, the concurred dates for surrounding the issues and proof get crashed. Accepting that the application for creation is permitted after a point by point sharing, and creation is coordinated, a date is fixed for recording the archives requested to be delivered. Indeed, the matter of right. At this point, the initially concurred timetables experience a total ocean change. There are likewise examples where gatherings document applications for interval help, either previously or in the wake of recording the pleadings. This isn’t figured into the concurred courses of events between the gatherings.

Arbitration of this application for interval help, at times over different hearings, lead to the council fixing a new arrangement of dates. When the arguing and documenting of affirmations of confirmation and refusal are gone along by, a date is fixed, with the assent of the gatherings for encircling of issues, the gatherings consent to a new arrangement of courses of events, which are advantageous to all concerned.

Though numerous dates are given for proof, attributable to the bustling calendar of the attorneys and referees, these dates are at times allowed following a while. On the concurred date of hearing lamentably, the observers are not accessible, now and again, legal counsellors are not prepared with interrogation, mediators reframe questions looked to be put to observers by the advice and the inquiries set aside some effort to be composed contemporaneously by the transcriber, connected with for the reasons for proof.

Resultantly, time is squandered and the dates fixed for proof are overshot and a new arrangement of dates are given. The council in this manner takes a while to reconvene and a similar issue is confronted with further questioning. Comparable is the issue with the last contentions. Even though accommodation volumes are recorded, last contentions take particularly long to finish up as the direction for either party works through the volume petitioned for comfort, perusing every single report which can and should be maintained a strategic distance from.

At long last, after hearing the gatherings at length and accepting composed entries, following a time of 2 months or a half year, grants are produced. Blemished memories of contentions combined with huge slips of time and different issues bring about blunders on realities. Every one of the above variables, regardless of whether independently or in total, bring about critical goofs on realities, which would and ought to have been in any case maintained a strategic distance from. The entirety of the above issues is disclosed to the disputant with a shrug of shoulders and with a clarification that at least a few degrees of progress are made. This repercussion of each of the above is that different extensions must be looked for, which arrogates against the vital motivation behind why the arrangement for timetables was presented in any case.


The sound and the gas radiating from the well is causing inconvenience for everyone, particularly the old and youngsters. Numerous residents have sent their children to their family members’ places in different towns of Tinsukia town. The circumstance is likewise troublesome as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic as there aren’t a lot of extensions to keep up social separation inside the camps.

Individuals in the town began whining of tipsiness, disturbance in eyes and shortness of breath as a result of the gas coming out from the well. all the expired individuals had a current wellbeing condition, stated, “But it is also possible that their condition was aggravated because of the gas and sound following the blowout.” While Baghjan has been the most influenced by the victory because of its closeness to the well, towns found further downstream like Notungaon, Milanpur, Hatibagh, Bebejia and Barekuri have additionally endured. Beads of condensate which is the buildup from gas consolidating after interacting with water have spread up to a sweep of 5 km, falling on trees, tea gardens, fields, water bodies, and on the tops of houses.

Agriculture, fishing and creature raising are the fundamental control of a great many people around there. In any case, presently as a result of the oil slick, horticultural land will get barren and no cultivating will be feasible for a long time. Likewise, fishes and household creatures are biting the dust in enormous numbers since oil has debased prairies and water bodies. Condensate contains several substance mixes, a significant number of which are exceptionally poisonous and cancer-causing in nature. If the dirt in close-by regions is defiled by condensate, its fruitfulness will be without a doubt influenced.

In any case, to know the degree of the defilement, an appropriate report needs to happen. Dibru Saikhowa National Park (DSNP) and Maguri Motapung Beel structure is an exciting hazardous exercises biodiversity hotspot where scores of visitors visit each year. DSNP, known for its populace of non-domesticated ponies, is home to 36 types of vertebrates and 382 types of flying creatures. Magura Beel delegated an Important Bird Area (IBA) then again is known for its avian and oceanic fauna and is a most loved birder.

Birders from everywhere throughout the globe come here to see winged creatures like Marsh Babbler, Jerdon’s Babbler, Swamp Prinia, Black-breasted Parrotbill, Swamp Francolin, and so on. Notwithstanding this being the settling period of the winged creatures, not very many of them can be found in the region directly. It is possible that they have taken off or they have kicked the bucket.

Fixing the Liability 

After the episode, the following intelligent advance is limit harms, tidy up the spill and build up obligation. The guideline of ‘outright obligation’ set somewhere around the Supreme Court in 1986, in the MC Mehta versus Union of India choices or the Oleum Gas Leak Case should be described here. For a long time, risk in law based on the idea of ‘issue’ for example some type of inadequacy in the lead of the contaminating party. This implied to append risk, it must be indicated that the dirtying party had done it intentionally; or because of carelessness in real life. ‘Issue’, in this sense, was famously hard to build up as one needed to have proof to exhibit on whose part the deficiencies lay.

Strict liability

To defeat the restrictions of this methodology the courts confined the rule of severe obligation where there was no compelling reason to set up the issue. The standard was that any substance that was occupied with hazardous exercises, could be held at risk if any mishaps were caused, independent of any shortcoming on their part. There were a few special cases like if the harm was brought about by conditions outside the ability to control the element (a demonstration of God); or that outsiders not associated with the element had caused the mishap; or that the individual who endured the injury had agreed to that demonstration. These special cases regularly made exacting obligations not powerful enough and prompted circumstances where it was hard to find out who needed to pay for the misfortune.

Absolute liability

The Supreme Court propounded another guideline rule of outright risk. The court held that substances that were occupied with unsafe/inalienably perilous exercises had an outright and unforgivable obligation towards the network to forestall any damage. The venture must be completely obligated to make up for such mischief and there ought to be no response to the undertaking to state that it had taken all sensible consideration and that the damage happened with no carelessness on its part. [MC Mehta versus Union of India] For all the innately dangerous exercises, (for example, oil boring), there was a flat out risk to pay for misfortunes if things turned out badly and there were no special cases to this.

Legislations in India

In 2010, Parliament established the National Green Tribunal (NGT) Act, which set up the NGT a selective natural court to manage ecological issues. Be that as it may, Parliament decided to overlook total risk and the standard of obligation is, best case scenario a severe one and not a flat out one. The sacred courts of our nation can keep on applying the standard of supreme risk. The Supreme Court and High Courts can keep on practising purview over natural issues despite the NGT. This is because the privilege to the condition has been proclaimed to be a part of Article 21 which is the Right to Life and the writ purview can be conjured to deliver and react to infringement. Further, there is additionally the standard of ‘polluter pays’ which is that the element that caused the natural harm must compensation for the cleanup and ought to remunerate the misfortunes

Need for a stronger regulatory framework

Most guidelines and enactments in the nation identifying with blowouts and oil slicks centre around spills that happen in the marine condition. The Merchant Shipping Act, 1958, and The Merchant Shipping Rules, 1974, manage spills, spillages and releases from vessels in the ocean and pass up a major opportunity instance of inland oil slicks and blowouts. Oil slicks fall inside the extent of The Disaster Management Act (DMA), 2005, in any case, this structure is just a responsive one, leaving no institutional-administrative system to manage an oil slick and an administrative hole exists. Notwithstanding having such huge numbers of inland spills, there is no appropriate guideline or enactment in such a manner. The proposals of MB Lal Committee composed in 2009, has not been actualized at this point. One of its suggestions — of building crisis reaction focuses to deal with significant oil fires, was to be finished in 2014, however, is as yet not actualized.


Looking at the fact that such instances are common in India, there is a necessity to enact specific legislation in this regard which would provide for a rule to affix liabilities, ensure safety concerns, compliance of the environmental norms and address the questions of the costs of cleaning up and compensation. 


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