disposed off cases
Image source - https://bit.ly/2qVHUqq

This article is written by Pranjal Rathore studying in Maharashtra National Law University, Aurangabad pursuing B.A.LL.B.(Hons.). In this article, the author has tried to explain that in criminology how can the cases be disposed of even without a full trial.


The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 is a procedural law giving the component which defines how the criminal trial is to be led based on substantive criminal law i.e., IPC (Indian Penal Code) and other criminal rules. The primary object of criminal equity framework is to guarantee that the trial must be reasonable. Ordinarily, when comprehension has been taken, the case continues, after a full trial, either brings about conviction or acquittance. Prior to that, the release of the charged can likewise be made in certain conditions as per Section 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure in a summons case.

Scope of the chapter

It is an obligation of the official courtroom to lead a full-fledged trial of an accused delivered before it to find out whether the accused is innocent or guilty. Anyway, relying on nature of the supposed offence, in light of a legitimate concern for equity and furthermore relying upon the conditions prevailing in the criminal case to allow the accused for improvement or to keep away from maltreatment of law or to spare time or to maintain a strategic distance from an extended prosecution, court may clear or release the accused as per the law.

Criminal procedures banned by restriction of time

In the event that the accused raises the primer plea that the criminal procedures against him are banished by the constraint of time as endorsed under law at that point the procedures must be halted if the discernment was taken after the pass of restriction period as examined under Section 468 of the CrPC. 

Section 468: Bar to taking perception afterslip by the time of restriction. 

  1. Except as generally given somewhere else in this Code, no Court, will take awareness of an offence of the classification determined in sub-area (2), after the expiry of the time of confinement;
  2. The time of confinement will be;

(a) Six months, if the offence is culpable with fine as it were; 

(b) One year, if the offence is culpable with detainment for a term not exceeding one year;

(c) Three years, if the offence is culpable with detainment for a term exceeding one year but not exceeding three years; 

(d) For the reasons for this section, the time of impediment, in connection to offences which might be attempted together, will be decided concerning the offence which is culpable with the more serious discipline or, all things considered, the most serious discipline.

Compounding of offences

  • Section 320(1) determines the offences, which can be aggravated without the authorization of the Court under Indian Penal Code;
  • These offences, most of the times are of a minor nature viz. hurting religious sentiments- Section 298;
  • Causing hurt- Section 323, Section 324;
  • Improperly controlling or limiting any individual – Section 341 and Section 342, attack/assault or utilization of criminal power;
  • Sections 352, 355 and 358 related to mischief. Sections 426 and 427 related to criminal trespass and house trespass;
  • The criminal break of agreement of service- Section 491, Adultery;
  • Section 497, tempting removing or confining with criminal purpose a married lady- Sections 498; 
  • Maligning or defamation- Section 500, 501 and 502;
  • Affront planned to incite or provoke breach of the peace – Section 504, criminal terrorizing aside from when the offence is punishable with detainment for 7 years;
  • Illegitimately limiting an individual for more than 3 or 10 days or in a mysterious place- Section 343, 344 and 346, assault or criminal power to a lady with an aim to outrage her modesty; 
  • Section 354, assault or criminal power in attempting unjustly to restrict an individual- 357, robbery- Section 379 and Section 381 untrustworthy misappropriation of property- Section 403;
  • Criminal rupture or breach of trust- Section 406, 407 and 408, insincerely getting the stolen property or helping the transfer of the stolen property;
  • Section 411 and 414, cheating- Sections 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423 and 424, Mischief by murdering or disfiguring creature;
  • Sections 428, 429 and 430, house trespass to drive an offence punishable with detainment;
  • Section 451, utilization of counterfeited or falsified Trade Mark or property- Sections 482, 483 and 486;
  • Bigamy-Section 495 of the Indian Penal Code, slander of an individual like the president, vice president and the governor and so forth;
  • Section 500, changing words or making motions to affront modesty of a lady – Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.

Withdrawal from prosecution

Object and purpose

Some unique laws which manage terrorist-related exercises like POTA (revoked), UAPA don’t, in essence, have appropriateness of Section 321 of the Cr.P.C. but the guideline of legal survey or judicial review still applies which is the fundamental point of Section 321 of the Cr.P.C. Along these lines, regardless of whether Section 321 doesn’t matter in its structure as recorded in Cr.P.C., the standard of the legal survey or judicial review is material in every single extraordinary law as to the intensity of court to give consent to the withdrawal application from prosecution documented by the public prosecutor.

Withdrawal by whom

As per Section 321, just the public prosecutor or the associate public prosecutor who is responsible for a specific case can apply for withdrawal from prosecution in a separate case. Likewise, a public prosecutor can’t have any significant bearing for withdrawal from prosecution if there should be an occurrence of the private complainant. In spite of the fact that the section gives no grounds on which withdrawal from prosecution can be recorded by the Public Prosecutor, the fundamental intrinsic condition read into the section by the Supreme Court is that withdrawal ought to be in light of a legitimate concern for the organization of equity. It is the obligation of the particular court, where the withdrawal application has been documented, to examine the explanations for the withdrawal and watch that withdrawal isn’t looked on reasons superfluous or against the enthusiasm of equity. Moreover, it is the obligation of the court to see that the public prosecutor really applies their free mind and not simply go about as insignificant mechanical operators of the State government.

The courts in different cases have troubled the public prosecutors with the tremendous duty to apply their own free mind and even conflict with the assessment of the State government if needed. Notwithstanding, the fact of the matter is tangled. The section conceives free use of the brain of the concerned public prosecutor without mediation from any legislature aside from when expressly required in law. Then again, the Supreme Court itself yielded to the point in Sheo Nandan Paswan v. State of Bihar that the Public Prosecutor is named by the State Government and appreciates office on the wish of government, hence, being more of a specialist of the administration than an independent official of the court. This perception of the Supreme Court is exceptionally near reality, in reality.

The courts have deciphered the whole circumstance as pursues: The State government can give guidelines or sentiments to the Public Prosecutor concerning the withdrawal of a case on the ground of approach, open equity, vexatious indictment, and so forth. Yet, the Public Prosecutor needs to apply his free mind to the proposal of State government and afterward may settle on reasons to either pull back from prosecution or proceed. On the off chance that he chooses to pull back or withdraw, at that point he should offer reasons to the court and demonstrate that he applied his free mind to the relevant case. Then again, on the off chance that he chooses to proceed with the indictment or prosecution, at that point he isn’t left with some other choice yet to resign from his post.

Along these lines, the part of free utilization of the brain by the public prosecutor on withdrawal from criminal prosecution is disagreeable and bristled with practical issues. The strict meaning that public prosecutor or the associate public prosecutor is answerable for drawing out the application for withdrawal from the prosecution, seems to be very inaccessible from the truth wherein the State government has indeed obtained a focal job in deciding the destiny of the withdrawal from prosecution process.

Withdrawal from prosecution of whom and in respect of which offence

Withdrawal from the prosecution of any individual either by and large or in regard of any at least one of the offences for which he is tried. Given that where such offence- 

  1. Was against any law identifying with an issue to which the official power of the Union broadens, or
  2. Was explored by the Delhi Special Police Establishment under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946, or
  3. Included the misappropriation or decimation of, or harm to, any property related with the Central Government, or
  4. Was submitted by an individual in the administration of the Central Government while acting or implying to act in the release of his official obligation, furthermore, the examiner accountable for the case has not been designated by the Central Government he will not, except if he has been allowed by the Central Government to do as such, move the Court for its consent to pull back from the prosecution and the Court will, before concurring assent, direct the prosecutor to create before it the authorization allowed by the Central Government to pull back from the prosecution.

Up to what stage of trail withdrawal is possible

Application for withdrawal from prosecution might be made at any time before the judgment is articulated. So the Public Prosecutor may record an application for withdrawal from prosecution whenever running between the Court taking cognizance of the case till such time the Court and things considered articulates the judgment. 

In Rajendra Jain Vs. State (1980)3 SCC 434 the Supreme Court has held that despite the way that offence is only triable by the Court of Session, the Court of Submitting Magistrate is skilful to offer consent to the Public prosecutor to pull back from the prosecution. In the event that an individual has been indicted or prosecuted by trial Court and case is pending under the watchful eye of Appellate Court, at that point, at this stage the Public Prosecutor can not move an application under the watchful eye of Appellate Court for withdrawal from prosecution in light of the fact that under Section 321 of the Cr.P.C. ‘Court’ signifies Trial Court, not Appellate Court and furthermore indictment or prosecution is made under the watchful eye of a preliminary Court. Along these lines, the Public Prosecutor can not move an application for withdrawal from prosecution under the watchful eye of an Appellate Court.

Conditions precedent for withdrawal

Conditions precedent for withdrawal are as such;

  1. If it is made, before a charge has been encircled, blamed or accused will be released in regard to such offence or offences;
  2. On the off chance that it is made after a charge has been encircled, or when under this Code no charge is required he will be absolved in regard of such offence or offences.

Discretion of Public Prosecutor and of court in the matter of withdrawal

Discretion of Public Prosecutor

The public prosecutor is, under the section, supplied with liberated discretion in choosing what cases to be applied for withdrawal. In any case, such circumspection is not unreviewable and, as given in the section itself, is liable to the court’s supervisory capacity. On account of M.N. Sankarayarayanan Nair v P.V. Balakrishnan, the Supreme Court attempted to diagram the rule with respect to which the public prosecutor can practice their circumspection. The court saw that the carefulness is guided by the implicit necessity that the withdrawal ought to be in light of a legitimate concern for the organization of equity. Such may incorporate that prosecution can’t gather enough proof to continue charges on denounced or accused, or that withdrawal is essential for controlling lawful circumstances, or for the upkeep of open harmony and serenity and so on.

The Supreme Court in Rajender Kumar Jain v State saw that in situations while proceeding with prosecution causes or threatens/ frightens to cause savagery, mass fomentations, common brutality, student unrests and so forth, it is alright and in light of a legitimate concern for public for the public prosecutor to pull back from prosecution in such specific cases. The court additionally saw that when choosing going ahead with indictment or prosecution and pulling back from prosecution in cases that undermine the tranquillity of the public, the state government is directly pulling back from the prosecution. The court held that the smaller public enthusiasm for prosecuting the accused should be cast off for verifying bigger public enthusiasm for keeping up harmony and peacefulness in the public arena.

Discretion of court

In any summons case founded generally than upon grievance, a judge of the top of the line or a first-class judge, or some other legal officer with the past approval/ sanction of the Chief Judicial Magistrate, may stop the procedure at any stage without articulating any judgment. While halting the procedures the officer will record purposes behind doing as such, Section 258.

The position of the Public Prosecutor as regards the withdrawal from the Prosecution

The position of the public prosecutor is the most authenticated one as regards with the withdrawal from the prosecution.

Discretion of court in according consent

The Supreme Court in Rajender Kumar Jain v. State held that the articulation of judgment is sufficiently wide to remember for its domain of both the courts-Court of Committing Magistrate and that of Court of Session. In this manner, both the courts have the power to hear the application of withdrawal from prosecution from the public prosecutor. Section 321 doesn’t give any rules to be trailed by the court in deciding whether to offer consent to the withdrawal application or not. In this way, the court truly has liberated caution as respects to offering consent to the application for withdrawal from indictment or prosecution documented by the prosecutor accountable for case. Be that as it may, the Supreme Court has figured through different decisions, core values to be trailed by courts in offering consent to withdrawal application.

To start with, the court should give assent just when it is fulfilled that such award of authorization for withdrawal from prosecution would serve the interests of equity and would not undermine the standards which the official will undoubtedly maintain and pursue.

In Bansi Lal v. Chandan Lal, a criminal case was enlisted under different sections of IPC against the accused people. The case was focused on the Court of Sessions after the charges were confined. The Public Prosecutor at this stage recorded an application for withdrawal from prosecution on the ground that the prosecution wouldn’t like to deliver proof and proceed with the criminal procedures against the accused people. The court acknowledged the application. On modification, the High Court likewise maintained the preliminary court choice.

The Supreme Court on offer held that the preliminary court can’t precisely offer authorization to pull back from prosecution to the public prosecutor. The court needs to see that the grounds illustrated for withdrawal are entirely the interests of equity and public appeal. The court likewise needs to see whether the workplace of public prosecutor is abused by the official to satisfy the thin appeal spurred by legislative issues.

Second, the court while offering consent to withdrawal from indictment goes about like a boss and subsequently, by and large, the court ought not to re-value the grounds on which the open examiner chose to apply for withdrawal. The court, be that as it may, is compelled by a solemn obligation to look at whether the open examiner applied his free personality in choosing the issue. Consequently, it is the courts’ significant obligation to investigate each application for withdrawal from arraignment concerning the utilization of free personality by the open prosecutor accountable for the specific case.

In Sheonandan Paswan v State of Bihar, the Supreme Court held that the court hearing the application for withdrawal from prosecution goes about as a chief and in this manner need not go into the proof of the case concerned. The court ought not to be worried about what the outcome would be if all the proof is considered. All the court ought to be worried about is that in considering the material set before it, regardless of whether the public prosecutor applied his free mind and whether the thinking embraced by him experiences inalienable perversity which may prompt foul play.

Third, despite the way that court, for the most part, isn’t compelled by a sense of honour to investigate the grounds on-premise of which the public prosecutor in control recorded the application, the court may investigate the grounds to maintain the premiums of public when the thinking of the public prosecutor doesn’t finish the assessment of sensible man or such is unreasonable to the equity.

For example, in Abdul Karim v. State of Karnataka, when the assent of the court was looked for by the public prosecutor in control for withdrawal from prosecution against some famous lawbreakers, the Supreme Court didn’t permit such application. The Supreme Court saw that though the court is not required to analyze the grounds which guided the public prosecutor in control to apply for withdrawal from prosecution, the court will have freedom to reevaluate them if the thinking received by the public prosecutor appears to be unreasonable to the public equity or such is not in consonance with the sensible man standard.

Consequences of withdrawal from prosecution

Different court decisions, including from the Supreme Court, have held that considerably after a case has been pulled back by a state government and got the assent of the court concerned, it very well may be tested for a legal audit under Article 226 of the Constitution. Courts have additionally held that other than the person in question, even an outsider can mediate and challenge the withdrawal of the case since wrongdoing is submitted against the general public. Courts have held that each individual from the general public has the locus standi to contradict or challenge withdrawal in a criminal case, especially if there should arise an occurrence of debasement and criminal rupture of trust or cheating.

Locus Standi of a Complainant

Section 321 is silent on the locus of the person in question, the complainant or some other individual to restrict the use of withdrawal from prosecution recorded by the open examiner in control. In Sheonandan Paswan v State of Bihar, the litigant applied under the steady gaze of the preliminary court to start procedures under Section 302 of the IPC against the blamed or accused while simultaneously the prosecutor was applying for withdrawal from prosecution in a similar case. The court dismissed the use of the appealing party and allowed the authorization to the public prosecutor in control to pull back from prosecution. Something of the comparable nature additionally occurred in Subhash Chander v. State. For this situation, the private complainant restricted the application for withdrawal from prosecution, yet the application was allowed to be pulled back.

 The issue of the locus standi of the complainant or some other individual to contradict the withdrawal application has not been chosen by court decisively. In cases like State of Bihar v. Ram Naresh Pandey, Rajender Kumar Jain v. State, Sheonandan Paswan v. the State of Bihar and M.N. Sankaranarayanan v. P.V. Balakrishnan, the Supreme Court on the resistance raised by the complainant did hear the matter and chose yet held additionally such to be outside the locus standi of the complainant. Then again, different High courts like that of Kerala, Bombay and Nagpur have maintained the locus standi of private people or complainant to contradict the withdrawal application.

However, High courts arranged in Patna, Delhi and Calcutta have taken a unique view that private individual and complainant don’t have locus standi to restrict the withdrawal application. 

It becomes a tragedy of equity when a private individual who is, in fact, the casualty of the wrongdoing isn’t permitted to restrict the withdrawal application. The state has the power to prosecute the blamed or accused of benefit for the general public and unfortunate casualty however when the state doesn’t satisfy this commitment because of different reasons, the person in question or the individual from the network, against whom likewise the crime is submitted as he is additionally equivalent piece of society as the person in question, ought to have the locus standi to restrict the withdrawal application.

There are without a doubt a few cases which appear to be the right way. The Andhra Pradesh High Court in M. Balakrishna Reddy v. Principal Secretary to Govt. Home Deptt. held that an individual not being a victim of the wrongdoing is similarly supplied with the right to contradict the withdrawal application from prosecution just like the victim of the wrongdoing. Further, the court saw that the third individual is a piece of society against whom the wrongdoing has been committed and hence the person has locus standi to restrict the withdrawal application.

In V.S. Achuthanandan v. R. Balakrishna Pillai, the Supreme Court acknowledged the locus standi of the resistance head in restricting the withdrawal application from prosecution against a clergyman since nobody else was contradicting such application.

Along these lines, at present, the pattern is by all accounts more for the acknowledgement to the unfortunate victim and third party’s locus standi in contradicting the application for withdrawal from prosecution.

Withdrawal of Complaint

Section 257 accommodates the withdrawal of the grievance or complaint with the assent of the Court whenever before the last order is passed. The section alludes to the withdrawal of protest just in summons cases. The section necessitates that the complainant should ask for the withdrawal of the complaint fulfilling the Court that there is a legitimate justification for the withdrawal of the protest. The Magistrate at his prudence may permit withdrawal of the grievance and from there on request prosecution of the charged. The withdrawal of a protest by the complainant suo moto under this section and withdrawal by him with the assent of the denounced by bargaining under Section 320 (exacerbating of offences) are two distinct things and should be separated. The differentiation between the withdrawal of a protest and exacerbating of an offence is noted underneath: 

  1. A complaint might be pulled back under Section 257 in regard of all offences which are triable as summons case, yet right to compound reaches out to just certain particular offences referenced in Section 320 of the Code.
  2. If there should arise an occurrence of withdrawal of a complaint, authorization of the Court is fundamental in all cases, yet under Section 320, there are a few offences which are compoundable even without the consent of the Court.
  3. The withdrawal of a complaint doesn’t ipso facto result in the prosecution of the accused except if Court passes an order for absolution. In any case, aggravating under Section 320 independent from anyone else results into acquittance of the charged.
  4. The privilege to pull back the complaint under Section 257 stretches out, just to bring cases, however, the privilege to exacerbate an offence reaches out to both, summons just as warrant cases which are determined in Section 320 of the Code.
  5. Compounding fundamentally suggests assent of the blamed, yet no such assent is essential for the withdrawal of the complaint by the complainant under Section 257.

In Thathapadi Venkata Laxmi v. Territory of Andhra Pradesh, the spouse lodged a report against her husband in police headquarters. The Police took comprehension of the offence and recorded charge-sheet against the denounced (spouse) before the Magistrate. Held, that the spouse was not qualified for withdrawal of the argument against her significant other as she was not a complainant for this situation.

click here
             Click here

Power of the court to stop proceedings

In any summons-case initiated generally than upon grumbling, a Magistrate of the first class or, with the previous approval of the Chief Judicial Magistrate, some other Judicial Magistrate, may, for reasons to be recorded by him, stop the procedure at any phase without articulating any judgment and where such stoppage of procedures is made after the proof of the chief observers has been recorded, articulate a judgment of prosecution, and in some other case discharge, denounced, and such discharge will have the impact of release.

Absence or non-appearance of the complainant

There are different consequences of absence or non-appearance of the complainant in both warrant case and summons case.

Warrant cases

According to Section 249, in a warrant case which is organized upon a grievance or complaint, and quickly fixed for becoming aware of the case, if the complainant is missing and the offence may be legitimately aggravated or is certifiably not a cognizable offence, the justice may in his tact whenever before the charge has been surrounded, can release the blamed or accused.

Summons cases

In a summons case which is initiated upon a grievance or complaint, if the complainant doesn’t show up on any day fixed for becoming aware of the case or any ensuing day, at that point the officer has wide watchfulness either to absolve the blamed or dismiss the meeting for the case or may forgo the participation of the complainant and continue with the case.

Abatement of proceedings on death of the accused

A definitive object of the criminal procedures is to rebuff the denounced on his conviction of any offence. Consequently, the criminal procedures lessen on the demise of the blamed or accused, as their continuation from that point will be infructuous, also unimportant. This position acting naturally clear the Code has not made any explicit arrangement in such manner.

Conditional pardon to an accomplice

The criminal procedures against an accused individual reach a conclusion if he is given exculpation as per the arrangements of Section 306 and Section 307.

Section 306 Delicate of absolution to associate

  1. With a view to getting the proof of any individual expected to have been legitimately or in a roundabout way worried in or aware of an offence to which this section applies, the Chief Judicial Magistrate or a Metropolitan Magistrate at any phase of the examination or investigation into, or the preliminary of the offence, the Magistrate of the first class asking into or attempting the offence, at any phase of the request, or preliminary, may delicate an acquittal to such individual on state of his creation a full and genuine exposure of the entire of the conditions inside his insight comparative with the offence and to each other individual concerned, regardless of whether as head or abettor, in the commission thereof.
  2. This area applies to; 
    1. Any offence triable solely by the Court of Session or by the Court of Special Judge designated under the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1952.
    2. Any offence, punishable with detainment which may reach out to seven or with an increasingly extreme sentence.
  3. Every Magistrate who tenders an acquittal under subsection (1) will record;
    1.  His purposes behind so doing;
    2. Regardless of whether the delicate was or was not acknowledged by the individual to whom it was made, and will, on the application made by the denounced, outfit him with a duplicate of such record free of cost.
  4. Every individual tolerating a delicate of exculpation made under sub-section (1);
    1. Will be inspected as an observer in the Court of the Magistrate taking awareness of the offence and in the resulting trial, assuming any;
    2. Will, except if he is now on bail, be confined in authority until the end of the trial. 
  5. Where an individual has acknowledged a delicate of exoneration made under sub-section (1) and has been analysed under sub-section (4), the Magistrate taking awareness of the offence will, without making any further request in the case;
    1. Submit it for trial;
      1. To the Court of Session if the offence is triable only by that Court or if the Magistrate taking perception is the Chief Judicial Officer;
      2. To a Court of Special Judge selected under the Criminal Law Correction Act 1952, if the offence is triable only by that Court;
    2. In some other cases, put forth over the defence to the Chief Judicial Magistrate who will attempt the case himself.

Section 307 Capacity to coordinate delicate of exoneration

Whenever after duty of a case yet before judgment is passed, the Court to which the dedication is made may, with the end goal of getting at the trial, the proof of any individual expected to have been legitimately or by implication worried in, or conscious of, any such offence, delicate an exoneration on the equivalent condition to such individual.

Trial of persons not complying with the conditions of pardon

Section 308 accommodates the trial of an individual who had acknowledged a tender of acquittal or pardon yet on the off chance that the Public Prosecutor guarantees that such an individual is either adamantly disguising anything basic or giving bogus proof, at that point, such an individual might be gone after for the offence in regard of which the exculpation was offered. In this manner so as to indict or prosecute the approver who has neglected to conform to the state of tender of pardon, a testament from the Public Prosecutor is an important recondition. The onus lies on the prosecution to demonstrate that the approver has unyieldingly covered anything fundamental or has given bogus proof and, in this way, rendered himself obligated for relinquishment of his acquittal.

The third-party can oppose withdrawal

Any private individual can restrict the application for withdrawal from prosecution and it can’t be limited on grounds of locus standi. In the case of Sheo Nandan Paswan Vs. The State of Bihar (1987) 1 SCC 288, the Supreme Court has held that since a resident can hold up an FIR or record a grievance or complaint and set apparatus of Criminal law moving, any part of society must have locus standi to contradict withdrawal. Especially the offences of defilement and criminal break of trust, being offences against society, any resident, who is keen on the tidiness of organization is qualified for contradicting application for withdrawal of prosecution.

Withdrawal from prosecution law is misused in India

Section 321 of CrPC 1973, manages the intensity of Public Prosecutor/Assistant Public Prosecutor to pull back an instance of which he is in control in the wake of getting composed authorization from the state government and that consent is required to be recorded in Court. The intensity of withdrawal can be conjured by the Public Prosecutor/Assistant Public Prosecutor, in light of a legitimate concern for open strategy and equity and not to disappoint or throttle the procedure of law. The power under this section is again in the news, with legislatures of UP and Haryana as of late attempting to recognize a few cases to be pulled back with an aim to make some political increases.

In Ranjana Agnihotri’s (2013 (11) ADJ 22) case, a full seat of Allahabad High Court considered four inquiries identifying with the translation of Section 321 of Cr. P. C., alluded to it. Incompatibility of directions given by the State Government, the Public Prosecutors, accountable for those cases, moved applications for withdrawal from the prosecution of the charged in the said cases.

The applicants favoured Writ Petition No. 4683 (MB-PIL) of 2013, along these lines testing vires of Section 321 of the Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 just as the directions given by the State Government to the Public Prosecutors for withdrawal from the prosecution.

The inquiries, along these lines confined by the Division Bench, were:

  1. Regardless of whether the State Government can give Government Order for withdrawal of cases without there being any solicitation by the open prosecutor accountable for the case?
  2. Regardless of whether the indictment or prosecution can be pulled back without appointing any explanation concerning why the arraignment was looked to be pulled back and is thus illegal and violative of Article 14 of the Constitution of India?
  3. Regardless of whether the indictment of offence identifying with Central Act be pulled back without taking consent from the Central Government?
  4. Regardless of whether the State Government in the wake of giving approval for arraignment, audit its own request by giving requests for withdrawal of the cases?”

Prior to leaving behind the case, the full seat alluded the accompanying perception of Godwin in his book, “Political Justice” while valuing the popularity based procedure in administration. The full seat responded to the four inquiries encircled by the Referral Court (Division Bench) as under:

  1. The Government can give a request or guidance for withdrawal from prosecution without there being demand from the Public Prosecutor accountable for the case, subject to the rider that the Public Prosecutor will apply his/her autonomous personality and record fulfilment before moving an application for withdrawal from prosecution.
  2. The prosecution can’t be pulled back without allotting reason, might be definitely. In the event that an application is moved for withdrawal from prosecution for a situation identifying with fear-based oppression and pursuing of war against the nation, exceptional and explicit explanation must be allocated keeping in see the dialogue, made in the collection of the judgment.
  3. Prosecution under Central Act was concerning the offences, the official intensity of the Union expands, the prosecution can’t be pulled back without authorization of the Central Government. For offences under Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967, Explosive Substances Act, 1908 and Arms Act, 1959 and so forth and the offences falling in Chapter VI of Indian Penal Code or the same offences the official intensity of the Union of India broadens, consequently authorization from the Central Government as to withdrawal of indictment under Section 321 Cr. P. C. will be vital. 
  4. State Government has got capacity to give guidance or pass request considerably after authorization for prosecution has been given in a pending criminal case, subject to the condition that the Prosecuting Officer needs to take free choice with due fulfilment as per law all alone, before moving the application for withdrawal from prosecution in the preliminary court.

From there on another full seat was comprised to consider the forces of government exercisable under Section 321 of Cr. P. C., the full seat should think about after three inquiries:

  1. Regardless of whether the intensity of withdrawal can be practised by State Government under Section 321 of Code of Criminal Procedure in an unconventional or subjective way or it is required to be practised for the contemplations, simply, legitimate and judicially reasonable?
  2. Regardless of whether choice taken by State Government for withdrawal of cases conveyed to Public Prosecutor with heading to continue ahead is available to legal survey or not in a writ ward under Article 226 of the Constitution of India?
  3. Regardless of whether State Government ought not to be required to take the examination of different criminal cases pending in Subordinate Courts to see whether they merit withdrawal in the exercise of forces under Section 321 Cr.PC. independent of truth that accused or any other individual has moved toward the administration for this reason or not?

This full seat answered the above-alluded inquiries in the accompanying terms in its judgment dated twentieth February 2017;

  1. The State Government isn’t at all allowed to practice its power under Section 321 Cr.PC in the unconventional or subjective way or for superfluous contemplations separated from just and legitimate reasons.
  2. The choice taken by the State Government for withdrawal of the case imparted to the Public Prosecutor is available to legal survey under Article 226 of the Constitution of India on indistinguishable parameters from are recommended for conjuring the authority of legal audit.
  3. The State Government is allowed to act under the parameters accommodated to make the examination of criminal cases pending in subordinate courts to discover concerning whether they merit withdrawal under Section 321 Cr.PC. or on the other hand not all things considered in the domain of the strategy choice, and approach the said score must be taken by the State Government and same must be founded on the parameters required to be watched while moving an application for withdrawal of prosecution under Section 321 Cr.PC.


Withdrawal from prosecution is a significant part of the criminal method in India. The Public Prosecutor or the Assistant Public Prosecutor who is considered as officials of the court and furthermore as the specialists or agents of the state government assume a key job in deciding withdrawal from the arraignment. The parallel pretended by the Public Prosecutor has, in reality, become the wellspring of the issue in releasing this capacity since the Public prosecutor is relied upon to satisfy the requests of both the particular mainstays of majority rules system with full confidence which appears to be a long way from the real world. The Public Prosecutor, on the one hand, is required to support the court, as an official of the court, in carrying the truth to the fore and then again, as the operator of the administration, expected by the legislature to speak to the case for its approach. In this manner, the carefulness offered by the Section 321 onto the Public prosecutors or the Assistant Public Prosecutors appear to be established not in them, however in the State governments in light of the fact that as perceived by the Supreme Court itself in Sheonand Paswan case that disregarding Public examiner being an official of the court, he additionally shares a relationship of specialist head with the state government and accordingly, he is required to pursue the assessment of the state government or leave.

Subsequently, the coming full circle impact of this is the open prosecutors by and large give up this optional powers before the state government for their activity and in this way, at last, taking a chance with the open equity. In any case, there is a shield however powerless which gives the rules on-premise of which the open examiner can look for withdrawal from prosecution. The basic condition being that such withdrawal should prompt help of bigger enthusiasm for open equity. The section has likewise given more grounded support against this previously mentioned stun to the equity conveyance framework. This cushion is the necessity of assent of the court. the courts’ assent is required before a case might be pulled back from the prosecution.

Generally speaking, the section suffers from illness because of the absence of clearness as respects to the degree of the watchfulness of the public prosecutor which lands the person in question in the dubious situation wherein he needs to either pick his activity or equity and, unfortunately, favoured alternative remains the activity. The prudence of public prosecutor must be characterized unmistakably with the goal that he can practice his attentiveness true to form in the law for the advancement of equity.


Students of Lawsikho courses regularly produce writing assignments and work on practical exercises as a part of their coursework and develop themselves in real-life practical skill.

LawSikho has created a telegram group for exchanging legal knowledge, referrals and various opportunities. You can click on this link and join:


Follow us on Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube channel for more amazing legal content.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here