This article is written by Shivani Verma, a student of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi. In this article, she has discussed various important aspects related to Fundamental Duties.
Fundamental duties of India
As an Indian citizen, certain rights and duties are provided to us. The duty of every citizen is to abide by the laws and perform his/her legal obligations. A person should always be aware of his/her fundamental duties. 11 fundamental duties are laid down by the Indian Constitution.
Origin and scope of fundamental duties
On the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee, the fundamental duties were added by the 42nd Amendment, 1976 in our Indian Constitution. The fundamental duties were originally 10 in numbers but in 2002, the 86th Amendment increased its number to 11. The 11th duty made it compulsory for each and every parent and guardian to provide the educational opportunities to their child who is more than 6 years but less than 14 years of age. These duties are borrowed from the Constitution of Japan.
Neither there is a direct provision in the Constitution for the enforcement of these duties nor there is hardly any legal sanction in order to prevent violation of these duties. These duties are obligatory in nature. The following facts provide for the importance of fundamental duties:
- A person should respect the fundamental rights and duties equally because in any case, if the court comes to know that a person who wants his/her rights to be enforced is careless about his/her duties then the court will not be lenient in his/her case.
- Any ambiguous statute can be interpreted with the help of fundamental duties.
- The court can consider the law reasonable if it gives effect to any of the fundamental duties. In this way, the court can save such law from being declared as unconstitutional.
Fundamental duties taken from
The fundamental duties are taken from the USSR (Russia) constitution. The addition of fundamental duties in our constitution have brought our constitution aligned with the Article 29(1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and with various provisions of the modern constitution of other countries.
11 Fundamental duties
Only one Article that is Article -51A is there in Part-IV-A of the Indian Constitution that deals with fundamental duties. It was added to the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. For the first time, a code of 11 fundamental duties was provided to the citizens of India. Article 51-A states that it is the duty of every citizen of India:
- To respect the Constitution, it’s ideals and institutions, the National Flag and National Anthem–Ideals like liberty, justice, equality, fraternity and institution like executive, the legislature, and the judiciary must be respected by all the citizens of the country. No person should undergo any such practice which violates the spirit of the Constitution and should maintain its dignity. If any person shows disrespect to the National Anthem or to the National Flag then it will be a failure as a citizen of a sovereign nation.
- The noble ideas that inspire the national struggle to gain independence, one should cherish them– Every citizen must admire and appreciate the noble ideas that inspired the struggle of independence. These ideas focus on making a just society, a united nation with freedom, equality, non-violence, brotherhood, and world peace. A citizen must remain committed to these ideas.
- One should protect and uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India– This is one of the basic duties that every citizen of India should perform. A united nation is not possible if the unity of the country is jeopardized. Sovereignty lies with the people. Article 19(2) of the Indian Constitution put reasonable restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression in order to safeguard the interest and integrity of India.
- One should respect the country and render national service when called upon–Every citizen should defend the country against the enemies. All the citizens apart from those who belong to the army, navy etc should be ready to take up arms in order to protect themselves and the nation whenever the need arises.
- One should promote harmony as well as the spirit of common brotherhood amongst the citizens of India, transcending religious, linguistic, regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices that are derogatory to the dignity of the women– Presence of one flag and single citizenship not only reflects the spirit of brotherhood but also directs the citizen to leave behind all the differences and focus on collective activity in all spheres.
- One should value and preserve the heritage of our composite culture– India’s culture is one of the richest heritages of the earth. So, it is compulsory for every citizen to protect the heritage and pass it on to future generations.
- One should protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and a citizen should have compassion for living creatures– Under Article 48A this duty is provided as a constitutional provision also. The natural environment is very important and valuable for each and every country. So each and every citizen should make efforts in order to protect it.
- One should not only develop the scientific temperament and humanism but also the spirit of inquiry and reform– For his/her own development it is necessary for a person to learn from the experiences of others and develop in this fast-changing environment. So one should always try to have a scientific temperament in order to adjust with these changes.
- One should always safeguard public property and abjure– Due to unnecessary cases of violence that occurs in a country which preach for non-violence, a lot of harm has already been done to the public property. So, it is the duty of every citizen to protect the public property.
- One should always strive towards excellence in all spheres of life and also for the collective activity so that the nation continues with its endeavour and achievements– In order to ensure that our country rises to a higher level of achievement, it is the basic duty of every citizen to do the work that is given to him/her with excellence. This will definitely lead the country towards the highest possible level of excellence.
- One should always provide the opportunity of education to his child or ward between the age of six to fourteen years– Free and compulsory education must be provided to the children who belong to 6 to 14 years of age and this has to be ensured by the parents or guardian of such child. This was provided by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002.
Features of Fundamental Duties
The features of Fundamental duties are as follows:
- Both moral and civic duties have been laid down under the fundamental duties, like, “the Indian citizens should not only cherish the noble ideas that lead to the freedom struggle but they should also respect the Constitution, the National Flag and National Anthem”.
- Fundamental rights can be applied to foreigners also but the fundamental duties are only restricted to the Indians citizens.
- The fundamental duties are not enforceable in nature. No legal sanction can be enforced by the government in case of their violation.
- These duties are also related to Hindu traditions or mythology like paying respect to the country or promoting the spirit of brotherhood.
Fundamental duties and Indian constitution
The Constitution was adopted in the year 1949, but it did not contain the provisions for fundamental duties. The Parliament of India not only realised the need to insert fundamental duties in the Indian Constitution but it also felt that everyone should perform such duties. A new part, that is Part IVA, was inserted by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 which provides for several fundamental duties that needs to be followed by the citizens of India.
These duties are considered as “directory” as these duties cannot be enforced through the writ of mandamus because they don’t cast any public duties. Fundamental duties are the basic reminder of our national goals and basic norms of political order. They inspire an individual to inculcate in himself/herself a sense of social responsibility. The Supreme Court said that the fundamental duties can be used to interpret any statue which is uncertain. These duties provide educational and psychological value to the citizens of India. These duties uphold the spirit of Democracy and patriotism.
In the case of Ramlila Maidan Incident, the court held that the word “fundamental” is used in two separate senses in our Indian Constitution. When this word is used for rights then it means that these rights are very essential and any law which will violate the fundamental rights will be declared as void. But when this word is used for the duties then it is used in a normative sense as it set certain goals before the state which the state should try to achieve.
42nd amendment 1976
The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 was approved during the Emergency period. The Indian National Congress which was at that time headed by Indira Gandhi approved this amendment. This amendment was regarded as the most controversial amendment. The provisions that were provided by this amendment act came into force on different dates. Most of the provision came into force on 3 January while others came into force from 1 April 1977. This amendment is also known as “Mini-Constitution” or “Constitution of Indira” because wide changes were brought to the constitution. 11 Fundamental Duties were laid down by the 42nd Amendment.
86th amendment 2002
Only a few constitutions in the world provide the guidelines stating the obligations and duties of the citizens. To govern the rights and the duties of its citizens, Canada and Britain lay significance on the Common Law and its judicial decision. It is said that one should be taught to follow fundamental duties at a younger stage because if this will happen then it will not be important to list the duties in the Constitution as it will not affect its implementation.
The Unnikrishnan Judgement provided that all the citizens who are below the age of 14 years have a right to free and compulsory education. Due to an increasing public demand for education, the government worked towards making education a fundamental right. In 2002, an amendment was inserted in Article 51A. Article 51(k) was added after Article 51(j) which stated that it is a fundamental duty of every citizen who is a parent or a guardian to provide opportunities for free and compulsory education to a child who is between 6 years to 14 years of age.
In M.C Mehta (2) vs. Union of India the Supreme Court held the following:
- It is compulsory for all the educational institutions to organise a teaching lesson of at least one hour a week on the protection and improvement of the natural environment.
- It is the duty of the Central Government under Article 51-A (g) to introduce this lesson in all the educational institutions.
- The Central Government should also distribute books free of cost on the same subject in all the institutes.
- To give rise to the consciousness among the people towards a clean environment, the government should organise ‘keep the city clean’ week at least once in a year.
Fundamental duties committees
Swaran Singh Committee
The Chairperson of this committee was Sardar Swaran Singh who was given the responsibility to study the Indian Constitution during the National emergency. After declaring the emergency Indira Gandhi put the responsibility on this committee to study the Constitution and amend it keeping in mind the past experiences. Several changes were incorporated into the Constitution by the government based on the recommendations of the committee.
The need and necessity of fundamental duties was felt during the emergency period. So in 1976, a committee was set up who made the recommendation for the same. The recommendation was made for including a separate chapter in the Indian Constitution under the heading Fundamental Duties. Citizens will be aware of their duties while enjoying their fundamental rights. This suggestion was accepted by the government and a new article that is Article 51A was included in the Indian Constitution which had 10 fundamental duties in it earlier. The government also said that it was a mistake that was made by the original framers of the India Constitution to not to include the fundamental duties at that time. The committee suggested for 8 fundamental duties but the 42nd amendment had 10 duties. Out of all the recommendations, not every recommendation was accepted.
Some of the recommendations that were not accepted are:
- In case of non-compliance with the fundamental duties, the Parliament can impose penalty or punishment.
- In a court of law, such punishment or law won’t be questioned.
- Fundamental duties also include the duty to pay taxes which was rejected.
Justice Verma committee
In order to plan a strategy and methodology for working out a programme that was started worldwide for making the fundamental duties enforceable in every type of educational institution and to teach these duties in every school, Justice Verma Committee was established in 1998. The committee took this step because it was aware of the non-operationalization of the Fundamental duties. The committee found that the reason for non-operationalization was due to lack of strategy for its implementation rather than lack of concern.
The committee provided with the provisions like:
- No person can disrespect the National flag, Constitution of India and the National Anthem under the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971.
- Various criminal laws have been enacted which provide punishment to the people who encourage enmity between people on the grounds of race, religion, language etc.
- The Protection of Civil Rights Act (1955) provided for punishments in case of any offence related to caste and religion.
- The imputations and assertions that are prejudicial to the nation’s integrity and unity are considered as punishable offences under various sections of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
- In order to prevent a communal organisation to be declared as an unlawful association, the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 was established.
- If the members of the Parliament or the state legislature indulge in any corrupt practices like asking votes in the name of religion then they will be held liable under the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
- The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 protect and prohibit the trade in the case of rare and endangered animals.
- The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 was implemented to make sure that Article 51A(g) was properly implemented.
Need for Fundamental Duties
Rights and duties are correlative. The fundamental duties serve as a constant reminder to every citizen while the Constitution specifically conferred on them certain fundamental rights. Certain basic norms of democratic conduct and democratic behaviour must be observed by the citizens. The then ruling party, Congress, claimed that what the framers of the Constitution failed to do is being done now. This omission was rectified by introducing a chapter on citizen’s duties towards the nation. In India, people lay more emphasis on rights and not on duty.
This view was wrong. In this country, there has been a tradition of performance of one’s duties even in partial disregard of one’s rights and privileges. Since time immemorial emphasis was on individual’s KARTAVYA which is the performance of one’s duties towards society, his/her country and his/her parents. The Geeta and Ramayana also provide that people should perform their duties without caring for their rights.
Traditional duties have been given a constitutional sanction. If one clearly looks in the Constitution not only he/she will discover his/her rights but also the duties. A careful look at the Constitution will definitely solve the question of the people who claim that the Constitution only provides for the rights to the citizen and not the duties of the persons towards the society. The Fundamental Rights that are provided to all the citizens are present in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution like liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. These are not absolute rights as the state can put reasonable restrictions on them in the interest of society. The remaining Preamble put emphasis on the duties like justice, social, economic and political.
Importance of fundamental duties
The government in order to create a strong foundation with a strong national character introduced fundamental duties. It not only lay emphasis on human dignity but also creates a feeling of harmony in the community. Our society can only be uplifted if each and every citizen focuses on bridging the gaps that have been created in the society, by performing their duties towards the society. Judicial reforms help in enforcing such duties from time to time because there is no provision in the Indian Constitution for their enforcement. If every person wants their fundamental rights to be realized then everyone should fulfill their duties.
The importance of fundamental duties are as follows:
- Fundamental duties act as a constant reminder that the citizens while enjoying their fundamental rights should not forget about their duties towards the nation.
- These duties act as a warning signal for the people against any type of antisocial activities.
- These duties gives a chance to the people to have an active participation in the society rather than being a spectator.
- These duties promote a sense of discipline and commitment towards the society.
- The courts can use fundamental duties for determining constitutionality of law. If any law is challenged in court for its constitutional validity and if that law is providing force to any of the fundamental duties then that law will be held reasonable.
- If the fundamental rights are enforced by a law then in case of its violation the Parliament can impose penalty or punishment for the same.
The Supreme Court of India ordered cinema halls to play National Anthem while portraying the Nation Flag. This was a remarkable step taken by the Supreme Court while giving the importance to the fundamental duties.
Criticism of fundamental duties
There were various grounds for criticism for fundamental duties. These include:
- Critics don’t consider the list of fundamental duties as exhaustive. They feel that many more important duties like paying taxes, casting votes that were also suggested by the Swaran Singh Committee were not included in this list.
- A common man cannot understand the complex words like composite culture that are present in the fundamental duties. Due to lack of understanding, the true meaning cannot be established. For him/her such words are difficult to understand. Moreover some duties are ambiguous in nature.
- These duties cannot be enforced by a court of law so, critics feels that it is of no use to include these duties in the Constitution.
- Some duties are of such a nature that they are being performed by the citizen in each and every case like paying respect to the National Flag and National Anthem. So there was no need to include these duties in the Constitution.
- These duties are placed in Part IV-A of the Indian Constitution that is after the Directive Principles of the State Policy, that’s why not much importance is given to them. According to the critics it should be placed in Part III after the Fundamental Rights.
Fundamental duties case laws
In the case of Bijoe Emmanuel vs. State of Kerala which is popularly known as the National Anthem Case, on refusing to sing the National Anthem in the school, three children of the Jehovah’s Witnesses were expelled from the school. There was a circular that was issued by the Director of Instructions, Kerala which made it compulsory for the school students to sing the National Anthem. These three children did not join the singing of the National Anthem but they stood up out of respect. They didn’t sing the National Anthem because their religious faith didn’t permit it and it was against their religious faith. They were expelled on the ground that they violated their fundamental duties and committed an offence under the Prevention of Insult to National Honours Act, 1971. The court reversed this decision of the High Court because they did not commit any offence and also they committed no crime under the Prevention of Insult to National Honours Act, 1971 as though they did not sing the National Anthem but they stood out of respect.
In M.C.Mehta (2) vs. Union of India, the Supreme Court held that it is compulsory for all the educational institute to organise a teaching lesson of at least one hour a week on the protection and improvement of the natural environment and it is the duty of the Central Government under Article 51A (g) to introduce this in all the educational institute. The Central Government should also distribute books free of cost on the same subject in all the institutes and also raise consciousness amongst people towards clean environment. The government should organise ‘keep the city clean’ week at least once in a year.
In the case of AIIMS Students Union vs, AIIMS the Supreme Court held that the fundamental duties are equally important like the fundamental rights so the Court strike down the institutional reservation of 33% in AIIMS which is also coupled with 50% reservation discipline-wise which was violative of Article 14 of the Indian Constitution. The court also said that just because they are duties they cannot be overlooked. They have the same importance which the fundamental rights hold.
In Aruna Roy vs. Union of India, the court upheld the validity of the National Curriculum Framework for School Education which was challenged on the ground that it violated the Article 28 of the Indian Constitution and it was anti-secular because it provided for value development education relating to the basics of all religions. The court said that the NCFSF does not mention anything related to imparting religious instruction which is prohibited under Article 28 and education neither violate Article 28 nor the concept of secularism.
In order to make a right balance between Fundamental Rights and Duties the petitioner in the case of Hon’ble Shri Rangnath Mishra vs. Union of India wrote a letter to the President so that he can give directions to the State in order to educate citizens in the matter related to fundamental duties. This letter was treated as a writ petition by the Court. But by the time this matter would be heard a report was submitted to the Government of India by the National Commission who was reviewing the Constitution at that time. Following suggestions were provided by the commission in the court:
- In order to sensitise the people and to create general awareness regarding the fundamental duties, the State and the Union Government should take proper steps on the lines that were recommended by the Justice Verma Committee.
- For generating awareness and consciousness of citizens related to fundamental duties, modes and manners needs to be adopted.
The court took into account the recommendations made by the National Commission and also directed the government to take necessary steps. The writ was disposed of.
In Government of India vs. George Philip, the compulsory retirement was challenged by the respondent from the service. Two years of leave was granted to him by the department to pursue advanced research training. After the repeated reminders he overstayed in foreign, so, an inquiry was instituted against him and the charge was proved. The High Court provided him with a remedy to join the service again on one clause that no back wages would be provided but the Supreme Court had set aside this order. The Supreme Court said that according to Article 51A(j) one should always strive towards excellence in all spheres of life of an individual and also for the collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to a higher level of endeavour, achievements and excellence could not be achieved unless discipline is maintained by the employees. The court also said that no order should be passed by the courts which destroy the essence of Article 51A and the order passed by the High Court, in this case, was destroying the essence of the Article.
The court in the case of Dr. Dasarathi vs. State of Andhra Pradesh, held that under Article 51(j) every citizen must abide by its duty to always strive towards excellence in all spheres of life and also for the collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to a higher level of endeavour and achievements. For this, the State can provide ways to achieve excellence according to the methods which are permitted by our Indian Constitution.
In the case of Charu Khurana vs. Union of India the Supreme Court held that the State should provide for opportunities rather than curtailing it. The court also said that the duty of the citizen have also been extended to the collective duty of the state.
Enforcement of Fundamental Duties
The fundamental duties not only guide the citizen but also guides the legislative and executive actions of elected or non-elected institutions, organisations and municipal bodies. Duties are only observed by the citizens when either it is made compulsory by the law or under the influence of role models etc. So this makes it necessary to make suitable legislation whenever it is important for the citizens to observe the duties. These duties should be made operational only when the directions have been provided by the legislature and judiciary and still there is a violation of fundamental duties. But if the existing laws are inadequate and they cannot enforce the required discipline then the legislative vacuum needs to be filled.
The legal utility of fundamental duties and directive principles is the same. Fundamental duties are addressed to the citizens whereas directive principles address to the state and there is no legal sanction in case of their violation. If a person does not care about his/her fundamental duties then he/she does not deserve the fundamental rights. These duties are not legally enforceable but if any act is done by a citizen that is in violation of the fundamental duties then it would be considered as a reasonable restriction on the relevant fundamental rights.
The 42nd Amendment, incorporated duties in the Constitution and these are statutory duties and shall be enforceable by law. If there will be a failure to fulfil those duties and obligations then the Parliament, by law can impose penalties. The success of this provision will solely depend upon the manner and the person against whom these duties would be enforced. If the duties are not known to all, then there would not be proper enforcement of these duties. Due to the illiteracy of the people, they are not politically conscious of what they owe to the society and country. Homes, universities, or any other place can be made the centres for imparting in the performance of their obligations.
Fundamental duties complement fundamental rights
The Constitution of India not only provide with the fundamental rights but also with the fundamental duties. Although the fundamental rights were introduced in the Constitution much before the fundamental duties and are also enforceable by the court. 42nd Amendment, 1976 introduced the fundamental duties. But these duties are not enforceable. These are the moral duties of a responsible citizen. The fundamental duties must be complementary to the fundamental rights.
Article 21 of the Indian Constitution provides for Right to education and Article 51A(k) provides that all parents and guardians must provide their children with free and compulsory education at the age of 6-14 years. This shows that fundamental rights and duties are complementary to each other.
But in today’s time people only want their rights and don’t want to perform their duties. There are many examples which shows that people while using their fundamental rights avoid their fundamental duties.
The recent example can be taken of what happened in JawaharLal Nehru University. People while exercising their fundamental right of Freedom of Speech and Expression raised anti India slogans in the campus of the university. While exercising this right they violated their fundamental duty that is laid down in Article 51A(c), that is the “power, unity, integrity of the country must be protected by its citizens”.
Many political leaders often attract votes in the name of religion. While doing this they violate their fundamental duty that is provided in Article 51A(c) that is “the power, unity, integrity of the country” must be protected by its citizens. They divide the society into different religion and caste.
Democracy cannot establish its deep roots in the society until and unless the citizens don’t compliment their fundamental rights with their fundamental duties. While enforcing their fundamental rights they should fulfill their fundamental duties.
Relationship between the fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties
The relationship between the fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties are as follows:
In cases where there was a conflict between the constitutional validity of the legislation with the fundamental rights, then the Directive Principle of State Policy have been used to uphold the constitutional validity of such legislation. The 25th amendment in 1871 added Article 31C which states that any law enforced which was to give effect to the directive principles that were provided in Article 39(b)-(c) would not be held invalid on the grounds that they derogated from the fundamental rights that are present in the Articles 14, 19 and 31 of the Indian Constitution. The 42nd amendment proposes that Article 31C should be made applicable to all the Directive Principles. But the Supreme Court struck down this suggestion as it violates the basic structure of the Indian Constitution. For forming the basis of the legislation related to social welfare the fundamental rights and the directive principles have been used together.
The Supreme Court of India after the Kesavananda Bharati Case, adopted a view that fundamental rights and directive principles are not only complementary to each other but they both supplement each other by providing some goals to establish a welfare state by the means of social revolution.
The Supreme Court has also upheld the constitutional validity of various statutes which promote the objects that were laid down in the fundamental duties. These duties are not only obligatory for all the citizens but the Court can enforce them by making various laws. For this the Supreme Court has already given direction to the state in order to ensure effective implementation of these duties.
Fundamental duties are not enforceable through courts but fundamental rights are enforceable through the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the Constitution and the High Court has the power to issue writs for the enforcement of the fundamental rights under Article 226. The fundamental duties and the directive principles of the state policy that are provided in Part IV of the Indian Constitution are taken into account by the Courts while interpreting the fundamental rights or any restrictions that are imposed on such rights.
The court in the case of Javed vs. State of Haryana held that the fundamental rights have to be read with fundamental duties which are provided in Article 51A of the Indian Constitution and with the directive principles of the state policy that are provided in Part IV of the Constitution. They cannot be read in isolation.
In the State of Gujarat vs. Mirzapur the Supreme Court held while considering the provisions regarding Article 48, 48-A and Article 51(g) that the directive principles of state policy and fundamental duties that are provided in Article 51-A of the Indian Constitution plays a significant role while testing the constitutional validity of any statutory provision or of any executive act. The Court also said that the reasonableness of any restriction that is cast by the law on the fundamental rights in the form of regulation, control or prohibition can be tested by taking the fundamental duties and the directive principle of state policy into account.
The court in Ramlila Maidan Incident held that a balance has to be maintained between the fundamental rights and restrictions on one hand and fundamental rights and fundamental duties on the other hand. There would be an imbalance if importance is given to only fundamental rights or to the fundamental duties. Duty is considered as a true source of right. The courts consider the fundamental duties that are present in Article 51A while examining the reasonableness of the legislative restriction on exercise of various freedoms. The court also said that duties like protecting the sovereignty, unity and integrity of the country, provide safeguard to public property etc. are not insignificant.
It was observed in N.K. Bajpai vs. Union of India that there is a common thread which runs between Part III, IV and Part IV-A of the Indian Constitution. First part provides us with the fundamental rights while the second part provides us with the basic principle of governance of the state and the third part provides the fundamental duties of the citizens of India. The court should consider all the constitutional aspect of fundamental rights, fundamental duties and the directive principle of state policy while interpreting any provision.
The non-enforceability of the fundamental duties won’t affect its importance. Fundamental duties are an important aspect of a democratic state because it not only allows people to enjoy their rights but also reminds them to perform their duties which they have towards the nation. The word ‘fundamental’ which is attached to the duties makes them utmost important and thus it is required that they are to be followed by everyone. Many duties have also been set up as a separate law and are made enforceable by the law but this does not reduces the value of other duties that are provided in Article 51A. It is not only the duty of the government to provide everything in the Constitution, it is the people who should also be conscious about their role in the society. Even duties like paying taxes, right to vote must be performed by each and every citizen of the nation. These duties inculcates a sense of social responsibility in everyone. While interpreting the fundamental rights these fundamental duties are always taken into account.
- Ramlila Maidan Incident, In re, (2012) 5 SCC 123
- Unnikrishnan Judgement, 1993 AIR 2178, 1993 SCR (1) 594
- M.C Mehta (2) vs. Union of India, 1998
- Bijoe Emmanuel vs. State of Kerala, 1987 AIR 748, 1986 SCR (3) 518
- M.C.Mehta (2) vs. Union of India, 1998
- AIIMS Students Union vs, AIIMS, (2002) 1 SCC 428
- Aruna Roy vs. Union of India, 12 September, 2002
- Hon’ble Shri Rangnath Mishra vs. Union of India, 31 July, 2003
- Government of India vs. George Philip, 16 November, 2006
- Dr. Dasarathi vs. State of Andhra Pradesh, 13 July, 1984
- Charu Khurana vs. Union of India, (2015) 1 SCC 192
- Kesavananda Bharati Case, (1973) 4 SCC 225: AIR 1973 SC 1461
- Javed vs. State of Haryana, (2003) 8 SCC 369
- State of Gujarat vs. Mirzapur, (2005) 8 SCC 534
- Ramlila Maidan Incident, In re, (2012) 5 SCC 123
- N.K. Bajpai vs. Union of India, (2012) 4 SCC 653
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