This article is written by Astha Dwivedi.
This article represents a structure of a non-utopian Liberal theory of International Relations. The core idea shared by all the liberals is that states are embedded in domestic as well as international civil society, which accordingly restricts and check their actions. This insight is formulated as three core assumptions which provide coherent micro foundational assumptions about key actors, their motivations and the constraints that they face. A wide range of hypotheses can be derived from this model, including propositions about the effects of democracy, nationalism, social inequality, commerce and international institutions on world politics. Some results differ from those commonly dubbed “Liberal” in current debates, particularly regarding the relatively narrow independent effect of international institutions on patterns of international cooperation. Liberalism enjoys several benefits over Realism which includes its ability to predict progressive historical change and the substantive content of policy. A coherent Liberal paradigm permits more rigorous empirical testing of Liberal and Realist hypotheses against one another, but also points toward a productive synthesis between the two approaches.
Aims and Objectives
- To know about the ideology of Liberalism.
- To know about how the two eras’s of liberalism i.e. classical and neo liberalism differ from each other.
- To know about the different pioneers of Liberalism with the period of time.
- To know about how different countries like USA and UK adopted this ideology and followed it in crucial times.
- To know about the criticism as well as advantages of Liberalism.
To define this new concept of contemporary democracy we can use the term “Liberalism”. It is a term made came out from the term “Liberal Democracy” which outlines nation with the concept of free and fair elections, where in place of power there is rule of law and where the autonomy and liberty of civil society is protected. However, when we talk about liberalism with respect to the IR theory, we can say that it has formed identity of its own. Within Liberalism, there are several notion and reasoning which talk about the role of institutions, importance of citizens, and the importance of trade which leads to economic connections with different nations and the co-operation of different democracies in the formation of anarchic world. If liberalism is compared with realism, then there are some other elements which can be added into our view, most specifically, importance of different international organizations and citizens of a nation.
Liberalism defines the aim of the government which is based on virtuous reasoning that is to ensure that each person living in a nation is provided with right to life, freedom and property. Further, liberals define that a strong and fair political system can be only formed in a country where emphasis is laid on an individual’s wellbeing. It says that a nation which is characterized by powers like monarchy cannot ensure the freedom to its citizen. Thus, there main task is to ensure the autonomy and liberty of an individual living in a nation.
While all this is their main concern in domestic arena, they also focus on a state’s activity at international level as it directly influences autonomy of a person living in domestic arena. Liberals don’t believe in war at international level. They believe that countries sharing same thinking of liberalism and democracy have better understanding which raises a high chance of peace amongst them. However, in case of countries following different ideology they may go for war but they also fear that development of military power in a nation can also affect the citizens within nation through oppression. That’s why; nations with their roots in liberalism try to limit their military power. But the main concern before liberal nations was how to protect their nation from foreign nations and at the same time don’t let the military power oppress the citizens.
At this moment, liberal countries came up with the notion of free and fair election where people can elect their representatives and remove them at their will. This proved as a check on the political system of the nation. In addition to it, there was a division in the political system of the state like NGOs, executives, bureaucrats etc. which maintained the check and balance in the country. Liberalism believes in the concept of co-operation and harmony which at international level develops through commercial trade. When trade between different countries grows, their economy becomes dependent on each other and by war they don’t want to lose it which leads to more peace in the society.
Liberalism can be studied in two parts with the variation in time period. One part is Classical Liberalism and the second part is Neo-Liberalism. These both study the different era of liberalism in the world about how with time their belief and ideologies changed. There are various theories which explain in detail the different beliefs and ideologies of Liberalism given by philosophers like Immanuel Kant, John Locke, Adam Smith, etc. In this article we will come to know about Liberalism in brief.
- What does the ideology of Liberalism talks about?
- What is the difference between Classical and Neo Liberalism?
- How Liberalism brought revolution in the global world?
- How U.S.A. implied the policies of liberalism in the global world as well as at domestic level?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of liberalism?
In the research paper, “Liberalism” by Gaus, Gerald, Shane D. Courtland and David Schmidtz, the author talks about different types of liberty i.e. negative and positive. It discusses the old and new liberalism which are also known as classical and new liberalism. It moves forward by discussing how these liberal theories were implied by different states. The paper tells us about the ideology and practices of political liberalism, liberal ethics and their values. Lastly, paper ends at how liberals interacted with non-liberals at both the domestic as well as international level.
In the research paper, “Liberalism” by Kevin Harrison and Tony Bayd, the author talks about the origin of theory of Liberalism and how it gained its pace after both the world wars. Further, it discusses classical liberalism in the 19th century. It stresses upon how classical liberalism wasn’t fitting in the starting of the 20th century which made the theorists think about it. After this came the Neo liberalism. The paper in the end discusses liberal themes which can also be known as pillars of liberalism.
In the research paper, “Introducing Liberalism in International Relations Theory” by Jeffrey W. Meiser, the author discusses basics of liberalism. Liberalism believes in the concept of peace, corporation, democratic state. It also focuses on spread of free trade, decentralization of power. Liberal theories are practiced at both domestic and international levels. Lastly it discusses how liberal theory along with American imperialism worked in America at the time of President Woodrow Wilson.
In the research paper, “Liberalism and International Relations Theory” by Andrew Moravcsik, the author defines the liberal theory of International Relations, where the global world is seen as something beyond Utopianism towards a positive liberal theory and from there towards political and social science theory. It discusses the core assumptions of Liberal International Relation Theory. It discusses various theories which are related to Liberalism. Lastly the paper ends on how liberalism was regulated and what were its limits.
In the research paper, “Liberalism in International Relations” by Michael Doyle and Stefano Reechia, the author talks about the basic principles of liberalism along with the role of various institutions in the domestic as well as at the international level. In this paper, the author treats Locke, Smith and Kant as the three pillars of liberal internationalism. The paper focuses on that there is different peace in democratic and liberal governance. Further, it ends with discussion on the global governance and the cooperation among democracies.
Liberalism is a school of thought within international relations theory which can be thought to revolve around three interrelated principles which are rejection of power politics, mutual benefits and international cooperation’s. The theorist of liberalism worked on these main pillars. With the period of time this theory was adopted by many different countries and applied at domestic as well as international level.
The researcher has picked decisive doctrinal sources like books, research papers, journals, articles, commentaries, etc. for the purpose of the research. Secondary research becomes of extreme importance in the present paper as it helps the author and the reader to understand the ideology of the liberalism in the international relations not only at domestic level but also at international level. It also helps in critically analyzing this ideology and give suggestions for its betterment. Thus, this methodology helped the researcher to gain a more profound comprehension of the subject with bona fide and sincere beliefs.
During the time of Enlightenment, a new political movement came out in the form of Liberalism. In the area of West, it has taken its growth among the different philosophers and economists. The advocates of Liberalism denied the customs and rituals which were practiced at that time; it also rejected the concept of monarchy in the state and treating King as the divine power. We can track down liberalism to John Locke who was the famous philosopher and political theorist during the 17th century. The book named “The Two Dissertations of Government” by famous philosopher John Locke is treated as the first account or description of liberalism. He asserts that only when citizens of the nation or the people who are governed given their assent, then only any true and legal political authority can be formed. He says that the government’s prime role is to protect the citizens of the nation and their life, liberty and land. It was the idea of Locke to have division in the government where one branch is of executive, other belonging to legislation and the third to rule of law.
During the era of various revolutions such as American Revolution, French Revolution and others, some eminent revolutionary chose to take on the philosophy of liberalism as it approaches towards the removal of monarchy and oppressive rule. After the French Revolution, there was the rapid increase in the followers of liberalism. During the 19th century, we can see the establishment of liberal political system in the countries like North and South America, Europe. During this period, conservatism acted as the major opponent on the basis of ideologies before the liberalism but later on, during the time when communism and fascism emerged as new challenge in front of liberalism, it survived it. After 19th century, the liberalism expanded more in the global world as the liberal democracy emerged successful during the time period of both the world wars. During 20th century, liberalism was having its influence in whole world. Social liberalism emerged as the main factor for the better welfare state in North America and Europe.
After John Locke, another philosopher named Adam Smith belonging to Scotland in 18th century became famous for his work named “Wealth of Nations”. Through this book we can see the dedication of liberals towards the concept of capitalization and free market. It was said by Smith that to get more economically stable by generating wealth we need to follow the concept of division of labor where there is decentralized work. Everyone has their own job and they work for it for their own benefit. Thus, we can say that there is high possibility of growing wealth in competitive free markets.
In Vat literature we can see the political ideology, Liberalism mainly focuses on the establishment of an environment where every citizen of the country feels safe and can achieve whatever they want, and thus it focuses on the commitment towards an individual. Liberalism as an ideology values rationalization, equity, liberty, self-reliance and forbearance. As asserted before, liberals are of opinion that first individual who was found with rational thinking was human and thus they should enjoy the most with all the freedom. Liberals believe that an individual should always be contented with what talent they have or how they do their work and follow the principle of meritocracy. A community following the liberalism is having the features of variety and cross-culturalism and politically it is surrounded by undifferentiable merit of assent and constitutionalism that together form the composition of egalitarian liberalism.
How liberalism brought revolution
To remove the existing tyranny in the country along with strong military power, the mutineer used the philosophy of liberalism in France and America. Liberalism has proved itself as the powerful ideology while shaping the political culture in West part of the world as we can see that in 19th century, America and Europe were nations where liberal ideology had taken its root. Some people do identify liberalism as a civilization developed in West part of the world. By the defeat of feudalism, there was the formation of liberalism which brought rise in market. It showed the goal and objective of the middle class person working in an industry and since then a close linked was form between capitalism and liberalism.
Liberals were strong critic of the privileges that were provided to feudal and in place of them they supported government formed with equal representation. During the time of 19th century, the classical liberalism by taking the shape of economic liberalism praised the concept of laissez-faire capitalism where individuals can work in whatever manner they want without any interference from the government. During the late 19th century, there was a shift from economic liberalism towards social liberalism which mostly aimed at the reform in welfare of the people and the intervention in economy. Many theorists like Francis Fukuyama have debated over the final global win of liberalism in the 20th century. This showed the reflection of clear options to market capitalism forming the base for economic organization and political organization formed as the basis to liberal democracy.
There exist some major differences between classical liberalism, modern liberalism and neo liberalism. There were different philosophers at different period of time who advocated these theories. These theories with their differences are discussed below-
Classical realism in the 19th century
The “classical liberalism” saw its peak in the 19th century. We can see that Britain as a community has done the most in the construction and development of liberalism in the 19th century as in 20th was done by United States of America. Liberalism as a political ideology was came out by the time of 1840s but it was in 1868 when first time a government following the ideology of liberalism was formed by William E Gladstone’s.
During the starting period of 19th century, a moral basis was given to liberalism by “Utilitarianism”. Jeremy Bentham and James Mill both said that utilitarianism asserted that human rights can be discovered as well as human institutions can be organized by the use of reason. According to Utilitarianism, the justness of any action can be calculated through the degree by which it spread happiness in the world and society. An individual in any reasonable act of his interest would focus more on reducing pain and increasing happiness. It argued that a person can only have knowledge about what is good for them and not the nation. According to them, a person can achieve “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” only in a state which follows democracy. Though there were many criticisms for this concept which showed society’s interest above an individual’s human rights then also it sufficiently impacted the thinking of the liberals.
Earlier, we came to know about Adam Smith who lived in 18th century but his ideologies were used and beneficial in the 19th century also with the growing industrial revolution. In his great work named “Wealth of Nations” he formed and talked about the economics which later on was known as “classical” liberalism. He believed that without the interference of State in any trade with different countries and a free market in the society, a society can have successful and great growth in economic development. He favored free markets because in it they allowed the every possible and productive way in which resources can be used and by this everyone would get whatever economic prize is justified for them. The people and individuals working in the society were free to make any financial decision by making all the contracts and undertakings freely. By this method, whole society used to get benefit as nation gets it social zest from strong market and this make sure the wealth and success for each.
In the 19th century, the systematization of political liberalism was done by John Stuart Mill. In his several works mainly On Liberty (1859) and Considerations on Representative Government (1861), he asked for a democratic system which constitutes a balanced constitution with all the rights embedded in it. These rights should be as; an individual should have liberty to think in whatever manner he wants and whatever belief he wants to, he should have liberty to express himself because according to Mill, a person’s thinking and opinion makes the best of a society. Secondly, a branch should be made their which helps in strengthening of power of educated person to vote so that the informed view point of majority people who are not educated can be choked. The reason behind this as given by Mill was that he feared that the basis of an independent society can be destroyed as the uneducated people may distract the crowd by giving the name of equality. They can suppress the people who were not orthodox in their belief taking the criterion of “right” as their tool to form the public opinion.
Nevertheless, Mill in his other works like “Principles of Political Economy (1848)” was agreeing with some sort of interference by State in the society so that they can handle some problems existing in society like poverty which was not found in other liberals of mid 19th century. He was the advert supporter of trade unions and workers which later on was witnessed as socialist. He said that if the societal environment would improve then there are high chances that working strata of society gets educated and develops a rational thinking which would enable him to take part in democratic decisions of nation.
However with the advent of late 19th century, the truth of the society had started becoming an issue in front of classical liberalism. These challenges were in the form of scarcity, sickness and ignorance. The reason behind the disastrous Irish Famine (1845-48) was the above mentioned economic policies and the policy of laissez-faire which didn’t allow states to intervene. This made the advocates of liberalism think about their policies twice.
In general way it can be said that the concept of co-operation domestically as well as at international level links the people with liberalism. To approach modern constitutional liberal state the basic foundation is of Classical Liberalism.
It is said that neo liberalism is the restatement of the classical liberalism along with some new additions. But what conditions led to the rise of neo liberalism during the time of 1970s? In the classical liberalism, it was said that there was the economic liberty given to an individual that means he was at liberty for this financial upliftment. This liberty can be used only when an individual could freely participate in the market (domestic and international) as buyer and seller. Thus, there should be no obstruction in the liberty of an individual. This makes the market self-regulatory and if there would be any interference by third party or government in the market, it would lead to failure of economy. But this whole scenario changed with the advent of Great Depression in 1929. The Great Depression challenged the classical liberalism.
After this situation, a new era of new thinkers developed which was lead by J. M. Keynes. He argued that the government is not only a night watchman whose only responsibility is the smooth functioning of the market or maintaining law and order. It is more than that. He also said that market is not self-regulatory and the modern capitalism needs to be regulated otherwise incidents like great depression would often take place. Thus, the whole idea and concept of Keynes came to be known as Keynesianism. His principles were tried to be applied in international as well as domestic market also.
After World War 2, the international economy system was devastated. The international trade came to its minimum level. Thus, there was the need to decide new global economic structure and to decide this structure there was Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. It was said that the global market would get regulated and this would be done my three new institutions that are IMF, IBRD (World Bank), GAAT (WTO). At domestic level also, the ideas of Keynesianism were tried to be implied and in consequence of this for the first time Europe and America witnessed an era of controlled capitalism in 1944-75. The term “controlled capitalism” means that there would be free market but government can interrupt if they want. This led to increase in government regulation, increase in taxation and increase in government spending. This concept was adopted by countries like USA in the form of formation of “New Deal” and “Great Society” and in UK in the form of “Beveridge report 1942”.
Due to the increase capitalism, we could witness challenges in the England and North America free market. During that industrialization was at its high pace and therefore we could see that bigger companies were earning more profits while the people working there were getting very less. This clearly increased the difference between rich and the poor. It was said by Beveridge report that this difference should not take place and this laid the foundation of welfare state.
However, everything changed with the collapse of Bretton Wood’s system in 1970s. Also many European countries have to suffer various economic crisis like oil shocks by OPEC, stagflation, bad affect of government regulation was seen as the big corporate houses were losing profit. After all these situations, some new liberals come in the market with the demand for revival of classical liberalism where government interference is restricted. This new uprising classical liberalism would be according to the new conditions of Globalization. Thus, when the classical liberalism would be introduced in the era of globalization then would come to be known as Neo liberalism. Thus, according to neo liberalism government regulation, high public spending and high tariff barrier were responsible for the poor economic growth. This is responsible not only in global north countries with industrialization but also in global south world with developing countries. The neoliberals gave same solution for both the countries which was the concept of free market and an economy model with free trade.
The concept of neo liberalism was adopted in both the countries of USA and UK. At the international level, IMF, GATT and World Bank were ruled by neoliberals. They tried to spread the ideas of neoliberals in the global world. Thus, it propagated the idea of deregulation of economy, less expenditure in public and open market for global world.
Difference between classical and neo liberalism
The classical liberalism in comparison to neo-liberalism is more focused on the concept of an individual right than the prosperous economy of the country. The liberals in 19th century were of the opinion that a person’s liberty is the utmost requirement of the nation. In addition to that, there should be limitation on government’s power through the method of separation of power, in consequence of which an individual would get more liberty. The reason behind limited government is that a person is reasonable and is interested in themselves which make sure that state is regulated in proper way by them only. Social Contract Theory given by Rousseau proved to be one major theory of classical liberalism. According to this theory, this is the place where citizens of the nation compromise with some of their liberty and give to the people who are elected as government officers and work for them. This makes the elected people liable and answerable towards the electorate and citizens. An individual receives back that compromised freedom at the time of election where they have the power to elect. Thus, the classical liberals hold up the concept of limited government.
On the other side, if we see neo liberalism they mainly pointed on the betterment of economic side of the state rather on the rights of the individuals. They advocated the concept where economy is self-regulated and is left on devices. Thus, it can be said that they laid attention on privatization with the opinion of classical liberalism which asserted that government should not interfere and this was evident when the semi-privatization happened of Bank of England.
The practical application of liberalism can be witnessed through the 20th century foreign policy of the U.S. It is believed that in the 20th century, US was following the principles of liberalism but it was found by some dominant historical believers that it was also following imperialism at that time. This brings the contradiction in the case of US. If we observe the situation in U.S. at that time, it was more in restriction than any other well developed nation of that period. This is clearly visible in the measurement of the colonial territory it acquired in comparison to others. The maximum holdings of America came from the countries of Philippines and Rico which it received after it won in Spanish-American War in 1898. The reason behind such restriction was the theory of liberalism which suggested a political structure with restricted expansion. This restraint of America can be better understood from the relation of US and Mexico.
In 1914 during the spring period, the Veracruz city in Mexico was seized by the U.S. over the confinement of many sailors belonging to America by Mexico. Another reason for troubled relationship between the two states was the belief of that time President of U.S. that he can bring the liberal thought of democracy in Mexico also when it was a country following the dictatorship. The starting plan of American was to capture Veracruz along with its neighboring city Tampico and after that east coast of the country should be blocked till there is vindication of an honor in the name of America. As the military force and other high officials of America landed in Mexico, there were proposals by many high officials to capture Mexico completely. But the president didn’t follow any advice. He limited his army to Veracruz only and after some months withdrew that too. The belief behind restraint done by president was that the American citizens started opposing; the actions would also be against his own values and also the loss that was occurred to military in the fight. Another major reason was that the countries against America started trying to enter in the nation.
By the coming of 1919, there was a formation of new pro-interventionist association in the US which raised the fear of president of US on earlier restraints and new addition to this fear was the formation of Mexican Constitution of 1917, in consequence of which Mexican people became the owner of subsoil resources. It occurred as a trouble for foreign countries and their ownership related to mines in Mexico. The conciliators desired of converting Mexico into American list or at least occupy their subsoil’s. The nation was moved to conciliation by the union during the time when President Wilson was busy with Europe for peace mediation and after that was on bed rest due to stroke. When Wilson was recovered completely in such a way that he can take the command again in his hands, the mode of union was blacked then.
There were two reasons with Wilson to ignore this path of aggressive policies. The number one reason was that in US only President has the power to make foreign policies. However, at that time Wilson saw that House of Congress was trying to decide the foreign policy of the nation which was not constitutional. Thus, his argument to look over the foreign policy which also included Mexico was evidently showing that he was in effort to check the power and authority of congress to make foreign policy. The second reason was that the President willingly wanted to make a policy which satisfied the notion of anti-imperialism along with determination in oneself-this is the procedure through which a building of a state is known by a nation and it chooses its own government. The above mentioned reasons are the pillars of liberalism in today’s world.
This connection between US and Mexico is the example of how things and institutions at domestic level limit the application of aggressive policies and power. However this restraint can lose in case the notion of liberals is not present in the political system of a state. Like, an opinion stating that government should be given limited power and a view point that it is not right to capture foreign people comes under liberal notions. A state that follows liberalism and its principle is having more restraint power along with limitations set by institutions on state. A citizen who wants freedom would obviously select the government who works on liberal policies in place of those who oppose it.
The blockade of union of Congress and other parties was only possible by the policy of powers separation present in the US. The restraint in expansion of US was possible because it runs according to the opinions of public and the ethics which President possesses. In the starting of 1900s, American leaders would used to get under more coercion from the view point of foreign nations as it would directly affect the trade and commerce amongst both the countries. So, according to the information given by liberals, the profit and options proposed by trade along with no interference worked as a limitation on US towards Mexico in the history of this world.
Criticism and support
Liberalism is an ideology famous for the significance it gives to an individual’s right, liberty and the concept of restricted government. However, the theorist who doesn’t follow liberalism asserted that in liberal community, the free inheritance works in the form of false promises.
There were many philosophers who raised question against liberalism. In them, the main rival was realists. According to liberal theorist, the history is known as highly developmental and growing while in the case of realist, it is seen as not so developmental. Realists criticized that liberals were not so protective about their nations security and other which showed them weak in the global world. They used to think about long terms which didn’t allow them to see the upcoming problem and its danger as it may affect their international position. In case of Marxism, it was argued by Marxist that while safeguarding capitalism, liberals were trying to show a not so balanced power of class as legal and thus forming a thinking of middle class. The progressive feminists spotted towards the connection between liberalism and patriarchism whose foundation is that an individual is elucidated on the base of a figure of man who is sufficient to himself and thus it motivates females to become like males. Liberalism was also criticized by communitarians as they didn’t do anything for social welfare and many argued that liberalism is a theory for uncontrollable egoistic people and avarice.
With the going time, liberalism was very affected by rights of people or civil rights. In US, many liberal organizations who were working for females were growing during the period of 1960s and 1970s, which showed a new wave of feminism. There were many people who followed liberalism and thus motivated people to follow equality in different races. The topic of equal rights was focused by many liberal followers during the time of 1960s in civil rights moment in US.
In brief, liberalism is an ideology which follows equality and liberty. There is several understanding of this notion but mainly they encourage ideas such as liberty to say and express liberty to media, liberty to follow any religion, free markets, a non-religious government, a democratic environment and community, civil right and the foreign support and cooperation. Liberalism began in the 17th century and progressed till 19th century and continued till the restatement of its basic ideologies according to the new world. This ideology has always made itself fit into any situation. While there were two forms of liberalism, one was classical and other was modern. The foremost one laid emphasis on freedom and the social liberalism laid emphasis on equality. However they both saw freedom from different angles.
Liberalism opposed monarchy and instead believed in replacement of absolute government into democratic government. This idea was more promoted after the French revolution and till now in the 20th century, liberalism as an ideology is followed by many and by this, they continue to exist at the dominant position in global world.
There were certain limitations which have been faced while working on this research article. They are-
- LACK OF PRIMARY DATA– While researching on my topic, there wasn’t many people whom I could contact to collect their views on my topic. It was difficult to collect people views as many of them were unaware of the ideology of liberalism. Thus, I have to limit myself with the secondary data available to me.
- LIMITED TIME–Due to limited time, it was not possible to explore more in the various others sections of the topic. Also, due to this, the researcher wasn’t able to explore some important sections of the article.
Liberalism has emerged as a strong political ideology against realism in both domestic as well as international level. The four different strands of liberalism were seen which are sociological, commercial, republican and institutional. The main principle of liberalism are an individual’s liberty, his natural rights which are given to him from birth, a rational thinking, a concept of restrained government, formation of a democratic republican state, etc. The main argument of liberals were there should not be a congregation of many power under one government as it may prove to become a danger to an individual’s freedom and thus it should be made limited.
The fundamental argument behind restriction of power of government is the institutions and notions at both the places which are domestic as well as international. In the case of international management, the different authorities and institutions restrict the states strength through the means of harmony and giving a medium through which they can inflict fine on the nation that breaches the rule of international deal. The thinking of encouraging harmony and cooperation at international as well as at domestic level came mostly from economic institutions. The reason behind this was the profit that could be earned from the cooperation and interdependence at international level. There were more additions in the restrictions to use power by forming the structure of right behavior. In today’s global world, liberalism is followed by superpowers and majority of states.
In today’s world, liberalism as an ideology is being followed by many countries which include USA, UK, Germany and other states. It has given a strong competition to the ideology of realism and in some manners prevailed over it. Both the theories worked as an important part of international relations. The institutions formed by the assistance of liberals are still working in the global world. Thus, it has cleared all the doubts of the criticizers who once called it a utopian ideology where every person is happy and at peace.
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