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This article is written by Kshitij, pursuing a Certificate Course in Intellectual Property Law and Prosecution from LawSikho.

What is Compulsory licensing in India?

Compulsory Licenses are approvals conceded to an outsider by the Controller General to make or sell a specific item by utilization of the protected innovation without the need of the authorization of the patent proprietor. The idea of obligatory authorizing can be explicitly referenced in both Indian Patents Act and TRIPS Agreement. For the mandatory License to be allowed the pre-requirements visualized in Sections 84-92 of the Indian Patent Act, 1970 (hereinafter alluded to as “the Act”) should be followed. According to Section 84, any individual (independent of if he is the holder of the patent), can make a solicitation to the Controller for award of necessary permit on expiry of three years, from the date of award of a patent, when any of the accompanying conditions is satisfied: 

The development has a sensible nexus with the public interest. The licensed innovation can sensibly fulfil the public necessity. In this way, serving everyone’s benefit. The creation isn’t accessible to the general population at a sensibly moderate cost. The protected development isn’t a work in the area of India. 

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Elements like the nature of the innovation, the capacity of the Applicant to utilize the protected development for serving the public advantage are considered by the Controller for allowing of a Compulsory License. The Controller is additionally vested with the option to give mandatory authorizing Suo moto under Section 92 of the Act according to the notice given by the Government if there is either a ‘public crisis’ or ‘outrageous criticalness or in the event of ‘Public non-business use. 

The standard pre-requirements to be demonstrated under Section 84 are not relevant under Section 92. The option to be known about the patentee can be deferred off by the Controller during seasons of public crisis or any condition of outrageous crisis. The Act additionally says that such remarkable conditions can incorporate a “general wellbeing emergency” identifying with AIDS, TB, jungle fever or different pestilences. In this manner, a pandemic like Covid-19 straightforwardly causes a circumstance wherein the Indian government can practice its force under Section 92 of the Act. With the award of obligatory permit to the Applicant, certain advantages are still left with the patentee specifically; the rights over the patent including an option to be paid for the duplicates of the item made under the mandatory permit. 

Patent Act conceives another condition wherein the Indian Government can repudiate a patent. Under Section 66 of the Act, the situation “by and large biased to general society” can prompt denial of the patent. The denial of the patent on account of Section 64 is diverse as specified in Section 66. 

Repudiation under Section 64 acquires the intrinsic strength or shortcoming of the patent. For a standard denial, between Alia, absence of curiosity, imaginative advance and modern relevance is needed to be demonstrated. Be that as it may, for the disavowal under Section 66, the component of public interest and what qualifies as biased to the public becomes an integral factor. Repudiation under Sections 66 and 64 is unique in relation to Section 92. It permits the patent to live and furthermore offers advantages to the patentee (via eminences) and the obligatory licensees. The presence of such arrangements under the Patent Act will most likely caution the patentees. The patent holders would then be able to be impacted to take estimates that can presumably keep away from the destiny of their patent being denied or allowed as a Compulsory License to the outsider. 

The actions which can be received by the patent holders are as the following: 

  1. Offer satisfactory supplies at moderate rates.
  2. Guarantee that provisions are met through their own endeavours just as the endeavours of their own licensees. 
  3.  Go into authorizing agreements of sensible terms. 

Show and direct viable advertising exercise, their activities ought to mirror their expectation that in desperate occasions, they care more about individuals than unnecessary benefits. Notwithstanding, the creating organizations have been restricting the award of necessary authorizing, to ensure the interest of worldwide drug organizations.

Termination of compulsory licensing

At the point when the conditions under which the mandatory permit was allowed stops to exist, the Compulsory License conceded under Section 84 can be repudiated. On an application (through Form 21) alongside the proof, made by the patentee or some other individual inferring interest in that patent can look for disavowal of Compulsory License conceded. The candidate is from that point needed to serve a duplicate of the application and proof to the holder of the obligatory permit and to illuminate the Controller regarding the date on which the help was made compelling. 

The holder of the necessary permit may document their protest alongside proof to the application for the end, inside one month from the date of the Controller’s receipt of the application and proof. A duplicate of the complaint and proof is additionally needed to be served to the candidate by the permit holder. From that point, the Controller will select a meeting for examining current realities and issuance of his choice. On the off chance that the Controller chooses to end the necessary permit, a request setting out terms and conditions, if any of such ends, will be served upon both the gatherings.

A landmark judgment named Bayer Corporation v. Association of India, in 2019 passed to determine the issue of conceding of a necessary permit under Section 84. This case is the first in Quite a while managing this issue. Compulsory licensing approving or allowing to sell a protected specific item or utilize a licensed specific cycle, without the need of the consent of the patent proprietor. This permit is given by the Government to a third party. 

There are some legal arrangements on the public level in regards to obligatory permits in Chapter XVI (Section 84, 92) Patents Act, 1970. Furthermore, there are some different arrangements additionally on the global level which are given in the TRIPS (Trade-Related parts of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement. In any case, there are sure conditions to be satisfied to take the award of necessary permit, which are obviously referenced in Section 84 and 92 of the Patents Act.A patent is a restrictive right given to an individual who concocts another item or new interaction and that new technology should be valuable. It is given by allowing a permit to a specific individual, and it is conceded for a specific timeframe just to the inventor. There have been three alterations in The Patents Act, 1970 as first in 1999, second in 2022 and third in 2005. These three revisions are done to determine the idea of ‘obligatory permit’ and are referenced in Section 82 to 94 of the Act of 1970 respectively.

Procedure for filing the application of Compulsory license under Section 84[7]

When an application is filed for a grant of compulsory license before the controller, it must contain all the relevant facts and evidence supporting the same. Then it is the discretion of the controller, he will examine the case and analyze the prima facie things in an application made against the patentee. The controller will analyze some factors on which basis he will decide whether to grant the compulsory license or to reject the application of granting the license. Such factors are:

Nature of the invention:

The invention of a particular thing or process must be new and useful.

The ability of applicant:

An applicant must be capable to work for invention

Efforts of the applicant:

Applicants must make some efforts to obtain the license from the patentee on reasonable terms and convince the controller of his efforts.

After considering all the factors, if the controller is satisfied then he may grant a compulsory license and if he is not satisfied with the application then he will reject the grant of compulsory license by issuing a notice which contains the information about the same. In this case, the applicant may also have some issues regarding this rejection. If yes, then he may request for a hearing with the controller thereafter, within one month from the date of issuance of such rejection notice. However, the controller will decide whether the hearing with the applicant based on the rejection application will be held or not.

According to Section 84 of Patents Act, 1970: At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the grant of a patent, somebody interested may make an application to the Controller for grant of compulsory license on patent on any of the subsequent grounds, namely:

That the reasonable requirements of the general public with reference to the patented invention haven’t been satisfied, that the patented invention isn’t available to the general public at a fairly affordable price, that the patented invention isn’t worked within the territory of India.

As per Section 84, somebody who is interested or already the holder of the license under the Patent can ask the Controller for grant of compulsory license on expiry of period three years only when the conditions are fulfilled which are mentioned above in Section.


Compulsory licensing is a beam of expectation for the monetarily tested patients in immature nations. Inferable from the monetary conditions and inadequate clinical offices given in India, the arrangement for Compulsory Licensing goes about weakening the privileges of the patent holders. The genuine test is to follow the principles of IP security and simultaneously balance the interest of general wellbeing.

The utilization of the arrangements of obligatory permitting should be utilized sensibly. It should consistently go about as a special case for the overall guideline of allowing licenses. The giving of the Compulsory permit should not be made successive to the point that it risks the exploration and interest of the patent holder. Regarding Compulsory Licensing, generally speaking, will straightforwardly influence the development of subsidizing and may bring about worldwide drug organizations being reluctant to present new prescriptions in different nations. The organizations if willing to shield their item from the shackles of mandatory permitting may need to fix the expense of their licensed module as per the financial status of the country.

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