“This article is written by Jeffy Johnson, currently pursuing B.A. LLB (Hons) from School of Law, CHRIST (Deemed to be University). This is an exhaustive article which deals with essential international conventions at the global level required for environment conversation.”


It is crucial to understand that environmental protection and conservation has a great effect on human-induced processes or actions. The environment can be evaluated and transacted by assessing processes, practices, and policies. All these should be in an adequate nature. All the international conventions and agreements’ main objective and goal is regulation and management of our approach to the natural environment. To ensure that it is implemented rightly and the procedure is maintained at the state level as well as at the national level. Even at the international level, numerous parties are signatories as it’s not an act that affects an individual in isolation, but it affects the entire world. 

The legal definition of the environment explains the interaction between the natural world and human actions or processes. The human race does not understand the ways nature works or the ecological process. The interrelationship between general or customary law of nations and treaty or convention law within the environmental field is examined. Many conventions are concluded with the aim of protecting nature. It always takes an extended time for states to bring these conventions into force by ratification, and once they do inherit force, usually only a couple of states have adhered to them. If this trend continues, international environmental law may never develop beyond the inspiration that has already been established. If conventions concluded during this field are getting to have a real influence on the law-making process in the law of nations, states must accede to the conventions now existing. a variety of international conventions and agreements are examined during this article. This article also looks into measures to curb pollution and ensure environmental conservation and protection.

Conservation of the Environment from A Global Perspective

Conservation from the global perspective means the meeting of the minds of a large group of individuals from all around the world. The main agenda of these individuals should be the conservation of the environment. Safeguarding, protecting, and rebuilding natural resources is a herculean task as the biodiversity is within our ecosystem. In order to maintain the quality of life, it can be stated as a conservation of the environment.

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The act of conservation can be classified in the following manner

  • Firstly safeguarding nature means protecting the essential resources. 
  • Secondly, how should we hinder the mal-practices of multinational companies that do hazardous acts against the environment? 
  • The term Green Living is not new; it means the process of taking away the authority and power from individuals who lack to showcase interest. 
  • These individuals can use this interest to take the authority to do better and good work to the environment and to the world at large scale.
  • Although we encourage these multinational companies they do nothing for the cost of protection of the environment. Environmental conservation can be in various forms and warns us to take responsible choices respecting nature. 

However occupied with work each individual is, it is the responsibility of all to take a small but rightful decision to conserve and protect the environment. Even a small step makes a lot of difference when it comes to the affairs of nature and natural resources. We should take proper action to use natural non-renewable resources of nature wisely and adequately. We must give our main focus to recycling and the elimination of hazardous chemicals from water bodies, as water is one of the most important resources of nature. It should be protected from being exploited by large chemical factories and outlets.

The environment includes river bodies, forests, and other related components. The forest is the trees and plants aid and gives us fresh air to breathe. It also eliminates greenhouse gases that affect the earth and gives way to global warming. These trees hold the soil intact and act as a natural filter. The water bodies are also home to a large number of resources. It’s our duty to ensure they are not polluted. It is the hub to a large variety of marine life and water plants. It is a life source for all. 

Oxygen is essential for life on earth and also there is a large amount of carbon dioxide that helps to keep the earth cool. The soil is a supporter of life and at the same time, it provides us with the supply of food as well as filters water. It provides us with food crops which are vital for the consumption of both animals as well as humans. These forests are the home for a large variety of flora and fauna; all these should not be disturbed nor exploited. It should not be hampered as it is these that maintain the climate around us. Even the groundwater which is suitable for drinking after filtration should not be polluted by factories. The forest, the water bodies, and the soil are the integral elements that are important for the existence of life on earth.

The idea of sustainable living came to our rescue. This facilitates the usage of natural resources wisely and in a responsible manner. The main objective is to ensure the use of natural resources without wasting and at the same time preserving it for future generations. The usage of solar power and windmills are always an option and a way towards the conservation of renewable sources of energy. By embracing sustainability we can conserve our nature and it’s resources. We should not exhaust renewable energy and shift to non-renewable resources in order to protect the environment. The advent of conservation begins with small steps and actions in our everyday life. For example, using the sunlight during the day instead of electricity. All these small measures are efficient and ensure the responsible usage of resources and avoid their exploitation.  

Deforestation continues to be an important environmental concern. There are a large number of cases filed on this concern and promote afforestation. The forest is highly exploited and we are losing a lot of trees. These trees are destroyed at the cost of development. The destruction of trees has led to an increase in greenhouse gas and also gives way to global warming. These forests are home to wide species of plant and animal life. All these are getting hindered due to deforestation. There should be proper steps taken to plant trees that will restore homes to animals. It will also protect food sources and medicinal elements that only can be obtained from these forests. The quality and standard of soil can be preserved through composting. Feeding the soil will leave over a degradable waste of fruit and vegetables can increase the nutrients in the soil. This will ensure better growth of plantations and trees. This enriches the soil and gives a better output. Vehicles are a major contributor to air pollution. This should be stopped and alternatives should be opted, such as walking, taking public transport, motorcycle, or carpooling. All these will reduce air pollution and at the same time improve the quality of air.

Conservation of nature is a duty of all, moreover, it is a collective responsibility. Using renewable resources, keeping in mind future generations is the only way to save the environment. Afforestation should be promoted as it prevents soil erosion and reduces greenhouse gases. Only if pollution is reduced we can prevent global warming which is depleting the ozone layer. The natural resources of the earth should not be exploited and used adequately. If we follow these steps we can make our earth greener and pollution-free. All international conventions, organisation, NGOs and other related associations should make strategic plans and measures to conserve environment globally.


Important International Conventions

The publicity surrounding the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which happened in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, confirmed the central place that global environmental concerns over issues like heating and loss of biological diversity were the planet’s political agenda. In fact, within the twenty years between the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment and therefore the 1992 UNCED, there has been not only a serious increase in awareness of the threats to the environment from human activities on both an individual scale and global scale but also a huge increase within the number of international legal instruments governing environmental issues.

The main sources of law of the nations are as follows : 

It will be recalled that the two main sources of law of nations (as defined by the 1945 Statute of the International Court of Justice) are international conventions and international customary law (Article 38(1) of the Statute). International customary law derives from state practice repeated overtime within the belief that it represents a legal obligation. Therefore there is a possibility for brand new rules of custom to emerge relatively swiftly. Increase in awareness of environmental problems has reached the international political agenda. It has taken second place to the treaty or conventional law within the evolution of legal norms. Although certain basic principles, like the equitable utilisation of shared resources (Lac Lanoux Arbitration 1957) or the requirement to not allow activities which damage the environment of neighbouring states (Trail Smelter Arbitration 1939, 1941) are often attributed to judicial decisions derived from customary law, treaties have doubtless been the most method by which the international community has skilled the necessity to manage activities which threaten the environment. 

Another important aspect of international environmental regulation is the development of “soft law”: non-binding instruments which lay down guidelines for future action, or through which states commit themselves politically to meeting certain objectives. These soft law instruments sometimes become formal legal instruments or become linked to binding instruments as, for instance, through decisions of the parties to a Convention. Important international conventions include Pre-Stockholm, from Stockholm to Rio, Conservation of nature and natural resources, Protection of the marine environment, Transboundary impacts, 1992 and Post-Rio Conventions, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), The Biological Diversity Convention, Regulation of the use of international watercourses, The transboundary effects of industrial accidents

Important International Organisation

Environmental organizations operate around the world in an attempt to research, track, and conserve the worldwide environment. These organizations could also be nonprofits, governmental, trusts, or non-governmental. Additionally, environmental organizations work on different levels around the world, including international, national, regional, or local. The main international environmental organizations within the world are as follows:

  • World Nature Organization (WNO);
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP);
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN);
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC);
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF);
  • Earth System Governance Project (ESGP).


In recent times the state and its citizens are under the elemental duty and responsibility of protecting and improving the environment. They are obligated to safeguard the flora, fauna and at the same time have civic sense towards the environment. Global compulsions should vitalise the rule of law into creating dynamic policies on the environment. If this is often not carried out the paramount laws are going to be stultified into a mere declaration in papers. The International conventions and agreements depend on the welfare of its people and active participation must cause the submission to monocracy. This may damage the environment and cause ecological imbalance. Affirmative judicial actions and legal actions despite its adversarial concerns are required to enlighten environmental law. Human existence depends on the crises of the dangerous degree of pollution. it’s vital to reiterate the necessity to realize growth within the economic and social well-being of individuals throughout the planet within the boundaries of a sustainable development base. 

Then the community sensitivity will need to be amid the will and therefore the capacity to subject developmental projects at the global level. This impact supported the principles of ecology and energy conservation. And also efficiently designed government projects blended with people’s actions can alone take the goal to the conservation cannot remain the responsibility solely of the International organization and other authorities must work together to make greater awareness. All International conventions for the conservation of the environment require implication and execution. As individuals, even the small measures we take can be a great contribution to the conservation of the environment. By all these efforts constantly taken on a large scale let’s hope to achieve a cleaner and greener world.

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