labour law amendments

 

labour law amendments

Evolution of Labour Legislation in India

The regulation in the case of labour and employment is often referred to as Industrial legislation in India. The historical past of labour legislation in India is interwoven with the history of British colonialism. The commercial/labour legislations enacted by the British hadbeen notably supposed to shield the pursuits of the British employers. Considerations of British political economy were naturally paramount in shaping a few of these early legal guidelines. Thus, came the Factories Act. Its good identified that Indian textile items furnished stiff competition to British textiles within the export market and therefore as a way to make India labour costlier the Factories Act wasonce first presented in 1883 for the reason that of the strain brought on the Britishparliament by the fabric magnates of Manchester and Lancashire.  For this reason, India obtained the first stipulation of eight hours of labour, the abolition of little one labour, and the limit of ladies in night employment, and the introduction of extratime wages for work past eight hours.  Even as the impact of this measure was once obviously welfare the true motivation was without doubt protectionist. The earliest Indian statute to regulate the connection between employer and his workmen was the trade Dispute Act, 1929 (Act 7 of 1929). Provisions had been made in this Act for restraining the rights of strike and lock out but no equipment used to be supplied to handle disputes. The customary colonial laws underwent enormous changes in the post-colonial generation considering unbiased India referred to as for a clearpartnership between labour and capital.  The  content material  of  this partnership used to be unanimously approved in a tripartite convention in December 1947 wherein it used to be agreed  that  labour  would  be  given  a  reasonable  wage  and  reasonable  working  conditions  and  in  return  capital would  receive  the  fullest  co-operation  of  labour  for  uninterrupted  production  and  bigger productivity as a part of the approach for countrywide fiscal progress and that all concerned would realize  a  truce  interval  of  three  years  free  from  strikes  and  lockouts.  Finally, the Industrial Disputes Act (the Act) brought into force on 1.04.1947 repealing the exchange Disputes Act 1929 has due to the fact remained on statute book.

What’s Labour Inspection?

Labour inspection is a public carry out of labour administration that ensures the utility of labour law in the office. Its primary position is to convince the social partners of the should examine the rules on the workplace and their mutual curiosity in this regard, by way of preventive, academic and, the place crucial, enforcement measures. In the global era of labour, labour inspection is the most required tool of state presence and intervention to layout, stimulate, and contribute to the progress of a tradition of prevention masking all points potentially underneath its purview: business family members, wages everyday conditions of work, occupational safety and properly-being, and issues regarding employment and social security. In the meantime, labour inspectorates take part in their responsibilities in a difficult surroundings involving vital changes in the monetary and social context, in business developments; in the business enterprise of labour and employment dating; within the social and political expectations, and in technological know-how and within the nature of work dangers. An effective and outstanding labour inspectorate ought to be well funded, exact staffed, and nicely organised. The need to guide inspection systems has emerged as more obvious in current years. Labour inspection offers a complete approach to a huge type of the issues that have arisen in keeping with globalisation. An effective characteristic for labour administration, combined with socially responsible corporations and sound commercial members of the own family could be a win-win process for promoting sustainable progress.

To at ease the enforcement of the legal provisions in terms of stipulations of labour and defence of employees, the Conventions furnish, inter alia, that the approach of labour inspection shall have the mission of supplying technical expertise and advice to employers and staff. Whilst such advice and expertise can only motivate compliance with authorized provisions, it will have to nevertheless be accompanied by an enforcement mechanism enabling these guilty of violations reported by labour inspectors to be prosecuted.

Violations could also be the effect of failure to understand the phrases or scope of the relevant laws or rules. For that reason, the labour inspectors have got to normally have discretion to select to not impose penalties as a means of enforcing legal provisions.

Labour Inspection vs. Management of Labor Justice

each are public services that share the cause of the implementation of the labour legal guidelines however they’re separate institutions and feature exceptional mandates for engaging in complementary dreams. The administration of Labour Justice specialises in labour law and its task is to remedy character and collective authorized disputes. Even though in distinct worldwide places the labour inspection method is entrusted with mediation and conciliation of labour conflicts, the ILO requirements advocate that the matter be entrusted to a separate body. In a delegated quantity of nations, there are specialised business members of the own family departments for conciliation and mediation inside the Labour administration for dealing with those conflicts. That is top-rated as a way to hold the credibility of the labour inspection process.

Labour Inspection vs. Technical Inspection

a few immoderate-hazard places of work or operations require larger interest and professional skills than others to make sure that the dangers are correctly managed and controlled. Those incorporate fundamental chance web sites like many chemical works or nuclear power plant life, exact laboratories (e.g. microbiological ones) as well as boilers, cranes, electrical or fuel installations, and work with ionising radiations. In many nations, the inspection of such dangerous plants or operations is entrusted to expert technical firms, which is likewise every day or accepted by the Ministry of Labour, as an alternative than labour inspectors themselves. Such professional firms will on the whole inspect primary plant life or operations at legally prescribed durations and submit a record or certificate to the company worried. Moreover, labour inspectors will test that essential certificates are available and up to date for the duration of their inspections.

Endeavor of Freedom of Organization and Right to Collective Bargaining

Labour inspection officers often undergo obligations in the subject of industrial relations, with regards to the pastime of trade union rights and defence of exchange union individuals. One such assignment is the registration of alternate unions, ordinarily accompanied by using verification of the legality of them via-laws.

The position assigned to labour inspectors in the area of commercial members of the organization tends to take the type of close supervision of the jobs of trade unions and employers in corporations to ensure that they do not exceed the limits laid down via authorized provisions, their own interior rules and their by-laws. The Committee can handiest express its reservations when immoderate use is manufactured from such supervision to the extent that it takes the form of acts of interference in these organizations reliable events. It remembers that the labour inspectorate should only act in fine circumstances similar to offences or violations of the regulation denounced by means of a large number of members. On this regard, the Committee noted with pleasure the repeal of detailed provisions of legislation authorizing labour inspectors to interfere in alternate union’s interior affairs.

Labour inspectors may just contribute to the system of revising collective agreements; they register and supervise such agreements. In contrast, a contemporary Ministerial Ordinance established that the labour inspection would not revise the provisions of collective agreements registered with the aid of the Labour Ministry.

Power of Labor Inspectors –

  • Make such examination and inquiry as he cerebrates fit in order to ascertain whether the rules made there under are observed
  • Enter, inspect and probe any premises of factory or industrial establishment at any plausible time for the purport of carrying out the objectives. They have power to take any assistance which they cerebrate indispensable.
  • Supervise the persons employed in any factory or industrial establishment
  • He can take on the spot or otherwise verbal expression of any person for carrying out the purposes of work.
  • Seize or take facsimiles of registers or documents or portions thereof as he may consider germane in reverence of any offence which he has reason to believe has been committed by an employer
  • Exercise such other powers as may be described.

Labor Inspectors Ought To:

  • Seek advice from technical colleagues and test relevant felony texts, tips and publications to make sure that tips proposed or commands given are correct;
  • Consult the notes taken at some stage in the inspection visit and the troubles raised on the remaining assembly;
  • Re-observe the issues recognized and confirm, via non-public mirrored image, that

they are, in reality, the concern ones;

  • Determine what movement to tackle every hassle. This can rely on an evaluation of its seriousness, the inspector’s powers under the regulation and, most importantly, what is likely to improve the administrative centre scenario in a sustainable manner.

The inspector should determine to confine motion to advising on how great to comply with the regulation or, if the problem isn’t always, or not totally, covered via prison provisions, advising on how to rectify the scenario. Where a problem pertains to certain sections of the regulation or guidelines, the sections should be stated in any notification to the corporation. Wherein advice or a recommendation is based totally on a trendy or technical norm no longer designated by regulation, the difference should be made clean.

Appeals Against the Order of Certifying Officer:

Section 6 of the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 deals with appeals against the order of the Certifying officer to certify the Standing Orders under subsection (2) of Section 5. According to Section 6 of the Act, any employer, workmen, Trade Coalescence or other prescribed representatives of the workmen aggrieved by the order of the Certifying officer may prefer an appeal to the appellate ascendancy within thirty days from the date on which copies are send under subsection (3) of Section 5. The decision of the appellate ascendancy shall be final.

The appellate ascendancy shall within seven days of its orders under subsection (1) of Section 6, send copies to the certifying officer, to the employer or trade accumulation or any other prescribed representatives of workmen, accompanied, unless it has been attested without any amendment that the standing orders as certified by the Certifying Officer and authenticated in the manner as prescribed.

There is no specific provision in the Act empowering an Appellate authority to correct mistakes in the Standing orders finally certified by it under section 6(1) of the act, before the expiry of six months from the date on which the Standing Order or the last modification thereof came into operation in the manner provided in Section 10 of the Act, that is expect on an agreement between the employer and the workmen[1].

When an appeal is preferred under section 6 of the Act the Standing Orders cannot be completely cancelled, they can either be confirmed or modified.[2]In view of section 7 of the Act, consequence of its operation certain rights and liabilities are created not only in the employees but also in the employers. It cannot be said that such order would not bind the workmen as the employer failed to comply with the provisions regarding translation and Publication of Standing Orders in question. Section 5 and 6 clearly contemplate filing of objection, hearing and decision, and then making it open to the aggrieved party to file an appeal before the prescribed authority.

In Badrapur Power Engineers Association V. Deputy Chief Labour Commissioner and others[3], the certified standing orders were despatched on 7th January 1991 and the appeal was filed on 6th February 1991. The question was whether the appeal was filed within the prescribed period of 30 days. It was held that in view of the provisions of Section 6 an appeal could be filed within 30 days from the date on which copies of certified standing orders are sent. In this case the appeal was held to be filed within 30 days because January 7 was to be excluded in view of Section 9 (1) of the General Clause Act.

Section 13 Penalties and process: Non- submission of Draft Standing Orders via the business enterprise inside the time limit unique in the Act is made Penal underneath part 13 of the Act. In a similar fashion, amendment of Standing Orders or else than in keeping with the provisions laid down in section 10 of the Act shall also be punishable. For these screw ups a nice fine extending to Rupees five thousand may be imposed upon the organisation. In case of carrying on with offence once more excellent fine extending to Rupees two hundred per day after the first day throughout which the offence continues is also imposed upon the organisation. No prosecution for an offence punishable below section three of this Act will be instituted except with the earlier sanction of the suitable government. No court docket not as good as that of a Metropolitan magistrate or a Judicial magistrate of the second type shall be attempting to try out an offence beneath the Act. Any person whose right has been affected by an order of the authorities under this Act can go to the High Court under Article 226 of the Constitution for the enforcement of his right by means of any directions or writ in the nature of certiorari or mandamus[4].

Charge- Sheet

Charge betokens an acquisition. As a general rule the inspector is too apprised of the acquisition in the commencement of the Enquiry. Every charge must be in indicting. No proceedings should be conducted against without any formation of a charge.

Afore launching a disciplinary enquiry, there should be carried out a preliminary investigation to ascertain whether, a prima facie case of malfeasance is evident. A disciplinary enquiry is initiated by accommodating a charge sheet on the inspector who is alleged to have committed the malfeasance.

Stages of an Enquiry

Following are the stages in the conduct of a disciplinary enquiry:

  1. Issuing Charge sheet
  2. Recording Evidence
  3. Findings of enquiry officer
  4. Punishment

After charge sheet has been issued and the enquiry convened, the management would call witness to give evidence orally before the enquiry officer. On the strength of the record of the proceedings the enquiry officer makes up his mind on the facts and comes to the conclusion on whether the facts disclosed before him do or do not disclose the commission of any misconduct. On the findings of the enquiry officer, the management decides on whether, to punish or not and also decides the severity of the punishment. Where charge sheets have not been properly served and notice of enquiry is not intimated, the enquiry is not considered to be held properly.

Provisions of Authorities Under Industrial Disputes Act 1947

The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 is an Act which makes provision for the investigation and agreement of commercial disputes, and for specified other purposes.

The industrial Disputes Act because it stands at present is the end result of a series of ameliorative regulation, establishing from Bengal legislation VII of 1819. To the last change to the reward Act in 1996. The goal of the Act is to keep workforce from exploitation or whimsical directives of the organization, and similarly to maintain the group of workers from the indiscipline and illegal works of the personnel and their unions.

The amazing feature of this Act is that all factories and establishment, regardless of being registered or no longer underneath some other Act and regardless of the quantity of employees on the rolls, will come below its purview. The Act applies to every trade, alternate, venture, service, avocation and so forth, which is viewed as an enterprise underneath this Act. Underneath the provisions of business Disputes Act, 1947 the next judicial boards are constituted for resolving and adjudicating disputes.

  • Courts Of Enquiry (Section 6)

The part 6 of the Act presents for constitution of a courtroom of Enquiry with the aid of the correct executive, as party arises for investigating any subject appearing to be principal to or related with an industrial dispute. A court of Enquiry may comprise a number of impartial man or woman or humans.

  • Labor Courts (Section 7)

Part-7 under the industrial Dispute Act provides the proper executive could represent one or more Labour Courts for the adjudication of business disputes in relation to any subject exact within the second time table of the Act.

  • Industrial Tribunal [SECTION 7-A]

under the Sec 7-A of the Industrial Disputes Act supplies the right executive may constitute one or more Industrial Tribunals for the adjudication of business disputes when it comes to any subject, whether or not specified within the second schedule or 33rd schedule of the Act. Further, when the parties to the dispute jointly or individually make a further reference to a Tribunal, the right government is bound to make the reference consequently, whether it is convinced that the applicants signify the majority of each and every get together.

  • National Tribunal (Section 7-B)

The imperative government may just represent a number of national Industrial Tribunals for the adjudication of commercial disputes which, in the opinion of the primary government:

Contain questions of national significance or are of such a nature that industrial establishments situated in more than one State are likely to be all in favour of or littered with such disputes.

A countrywide Tribunal shall consist of 1 man or woman most effective to be appointed by using the imperative executive. A reference is also made to a country wide Industrial Tribunal irrespective of whether or not the matter relates to the 2nd or 3rd agenda. When the parties to an industrial dispute follow, in the prescribed manner, whether jointly or separately, for a reference to a country wide Industrial Tribunal, the suitable government, if convinced that the persons applying symbolize nearly all of each party, is bound to make the reference for that reason.

When a reference has been made to a country wide Industrial Tribunal, no Labour court docket or Industrial Tribunal shall have jurisdiction upon any matter which is below adjudication earlier than it in a similar fashion, proceedings pending before a Labour courtroom or Industrial Tribunal can be deemed too were quashed once a reference is made to a country wide Industrial Tribunal. A subject once mentioned a national Industrial Tribunal can’t thereafter be pointed out a Labour court docket or an Industrial Tribunal. Jurisdiction of Labour Courts and Industrial Tribunals is furnished beneath the following Schedules:

The second schedule narrates the next disorders:

The propriety or legality of an order handed with the aid of an enterprise beneath the standing Orders;

The applying and interpretation of standing Orders;

Discharge or dismissal of workmen including reinstatement of, or provide or remedy to, workmen wrongfully dismissed;

Withdrawal of any common concession or privilege;

Illegality or in any other case of a strike or lockout; and

All concerns as opposed to those particular within the 3rd schedule

Even though the dispute relates to any topic specified in the3rd schedule and which by and large should be mentioned an Industrial Tribunal, it is going to still be talked about a Labour court, if the dispute will not be more likely to influence greater than one hundred workmen.

Reference of Controversy to Boards, Courts or Tribunals

The Section 10, of Industrial Disputes Act, deals with the reference of commercial disputes by the suitable government to Boards, Courts or Tribunals. Reference of an industrial dispute underneath this section is within the nature of operative provision providing for reference of any matter concerning an industrial dispute or the dispute itself to numerous authorities created by the Act.

According to sub section one of section ten, wherever the suitable government is of the opinion that any industrial dispute exists or is understood, it’s going to at any time by written order.

  • Refer the dispute to a Board for promoting a settlement thereof;
  •  Refer any matter showing to be connected with or relevant to the dispute to a court for inquiry;
  • Refer the dispute or any matter showing to be connected with, or relevant to, the dispute, if it relates to any matter laid out in the Second Schedule, to a labour Court for judgement
  • Refer the dispute or any matter showing to be connected with, or relevant to the dispute whether or not it relates to any matter laid out in the Second Schedule or the third schedule to a judicature for judgement.

According to the second provision to Section 10(1) wherever the dispute relates to public utility service and notice under section twenty two has been given the suitable Government shall build a reference in respect of a dispute. If it considers that the notice has been frivolously or annoying given or that it might be inexpedient the acceptable government needn’t refer the dispute.

According to Section 10(2), the parties to a dispute could apply either collectively or individually, to the acceptable government for a reference of the dispute to a Board, Court, and Tribunal. The acceptable government shall build the reference, if it’s glad that the person applying represents the bulk of every party.

Section 10(4) of the act says that the suitable government will specify the points for dispute for judgement within the order of reference or during a consequent order. The Labour Court or tribunal shall confine its assessment to those points and matters accompanying the points of dispute fixed by the acceptable government.

After referring a dispute, the govt. might create additional order of reference of the dispute incorporating such alternative similar nature industries to the dispute already referred, if the choice of such dispute might have an effect on upon the opposite industries of comparable nature.

In the case of Sindhu resettlement corporation. Ltd. V. Industrial tribunal of Gujrat, (AIR 1968 SC 529) it had been command that unless a dispute was raised by working person with their leader, it couldn’t become industrial dispute.

Constitutional validity of Section 10: The validity of Section 10 has been upheld by the Supreme Court as intra-vires. Hence, it’s not offending of any of constitutional provisions.

In D.C and G. Mills v. Shambhu Nath, (AIR 1978 SC 8) the court command that section 10 isn’t violative of Article 14 of the Constitution. Below Section 10, the powers are administrative powers aside from judicial or quasi-judicial power. Hence, there’s no application of Section 11 of Civil Procedure Code, i.e., Res-judicata.

Discriminatory Labour Practices

Chapter X of the act deals with ‘Unfair Labour Practices’. According to it no employer or workmen or Trade Union shall commit any unfair labour practice. Further, it is an offence under Section 25 (u). This practice has been prohibited to regulate industrial relations and to restore industrial peace. In this regard a new Schedule-V had been added. In this Schedule, various unfair labour practices have been defined.

Following are necessary practices that are listed as unfair and created punishable:

  • Practices that interfere with workmen within the exercise of their rights to organise, for connection or aiding a labour union or to have interaction in any involved activities for the aim of negotiation or alternative protection.
  • Threatening a lock-out or closure if a labour union is unionized.
  • Discharge or dismiss of workmen by means of victimization or on false reasons or untrue allegations.
  • Practices to get rid of the work of an everyday nature
  • Practices to transfer a working person malafidely from one place to a different underneath the pretence of management policy.

6)         Insisting any individual working man to execute a bond for permitting them to resume work if they’re on a legal strike

7)         Showing partiality to at least one set of employees over another set whereas disregard less deserves.

8)         Discharging the standing and privileges of permanent workmen by using badlis or temporaries.

9)         Discriminating workmen for filing charges.

10)       Failure to implement award, settlement or any agreement

11)       Proposing or continued embezzled opposition.

The above list of practices is not exhaustive and there is no scientific test to define the expression ‘unfair labour practice’. Thus any practice which violates the provisions of the constitution meant for the dignity, security, welfare and to promote living conditions for workmen amounts to unfair labour practice.

In United Bank of India v. Siddhartha Chakraborty, the respondent was cash clerk in commercial wing of the Appellant bank. He was dismissed from service on conclusion of departmental proceedings against him. He succeeded before a Single judge and Division Bench of High Court in challenging his dismissal as void for omission of appellants to seek approval under Section 33(2)(b) of the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947 as there was a pending dispute before the concerned authority.

In Management of Binny Ltd., Engineering Division, Chennai v. Presiding Officer, Industrial Tribunal, Chennai and another application for approbation of action taken was given by the management to the Industrial Tribunal and the Tribunal concluded that the enquiry against the workman was not conducted in a fair and congruous manner. It was held by the High Court that the domestic inquiry was fair and no procedural breach was committed causing prejudice to workman. The evidence or record proved that the workman was not inclined to participate in domestic enquiry and was resolute to evade the same by one pretext or other. It was further observed that natural equity could not be stretched so far as to sanction a person to take undue advantage and make enquiry a travesty. Observance or otherwise of principles of natural equity is not to be weighed in golden scale.

In L.H.Factories and Oil Mills, Pilibhit v. State of U.P (1961) I LLJ 686, some of the employees were promoted to the rank of driver-cum-assistant-fitter. Alternative ten employees who were senior in commission and conjointly higher qualified however weren’t thus promoted raised a dispute alleging discrimination within the matter of promotion. They alleged that they were put-upon for their labour union activities. The Labour Court was of the read that “promotions weren’t given on merits but were given to indulge one association at the value of rival association.” the corporate stuffed a judicial writ within the Allahabad tribunal. it had been command that the promotions were created to please one trades union and strengthen it against the rival union and to that the disputing workmen were members. It absolutely was determined that any systematic try by leader to use his powers of management to disrupt labour union of staff amounts to unfair labour practice. Unjust dismissals, unmerited promotion, partiality towards one set of staff despite merits are a few illustrations of Unfair Labour practice.

Conclusion

Efficacious labour administration systems, public employment accommodations and labour scrutiny, are very important for good governance of labour matters and for economic and sociable progress. These systems will build good work associate degree genuineness within the work by implementing labour standards and amending operating and employment conditions, therefore incrementing responsibleness, activity safety and health, aggressiveness and productivity with convivial equity. At the same time, labour administration systems will avail stimulate economic magnification by developing and implementing economic and gregarious policies designed to engender higher employment rates, convivial cohesion and good work.

 

Labour administration and review systems nowadays operate in a very speedily transmuting surroundingsCharacterized by dramatic economic, institutional, demographic and political transformations,including transmuting patterns of engenderment, work organization, employment structures andRelationships, labour migration and cross-border postings, outsourcing and elongated ecumenicalSupply chains, and also the growth of the informal economy.

 

Labour review systems, unconditionally those in developing countries, face varied challengesthat are mundane to labour administrations holistically, together with the requisite for incremented monetary resources, additional punctually qualified inspectors, higher instrumentality and higher coaching, and amendedrecruitment procedures.

 

Labour scrutiny should be a public perquisite and be in accordance with international labour standards. However, the past decades have visually perceived a magnification privately auditing initiatives like the institution of good-time reportage and personal observation systems. There’s danger that some sorts of non-public initiatives may undermine public labour scrutiny.  Problems of personal compliance initiatives, self-regulation and potential public–private partnerships are unworthy of additional proximate examination.

 

Promoting and imposing tight operating conditions, safety and health standards and reverence for Fundamental principles and rights at work are at the core of labour scrutiny activities. This includes for instance, action to combat un-avowed work, kid and coerced labour. The provisions of labour law ought to apply equipollent to all or any staff and every one workplace. General compliance and preventive ways are essential for ascertaining fairness within the work and consequently property enterprises and economic magnification. These methods ought to cowl all staff, as well as those within the public sector, the informal economy, rural economy and agriculture and export process zones (EPZs). It’s unacceptable that some EPZs are exempted from elementary national labour laws. Labour inspectors face the challenge of ascertaining labour law compliance in workplaces that are arduous to notice (e.g. within the agricultural and construction sectors), or wherever the utilization relationship is specific (home-predicated work, domestic work), or is arduous to spot (incipient varieties of employment, outsourcing and complex offer supply chains).

 

In order to establish the integrity of labour review, conditions of accommodation for labour inspectors ought to replicate gender equipollence and facilitate employment stability and private security within the exercise of their functions, underpinned by a felicitous restrictive framework.

 

References:

 

I.            Labour Inspection- A Guide to Profession (ILO)

II.            International Labour Conference  100th Session, Geneva, June 2011

III.            A handbook for Labour Inspection – ilo.org

IV.            Building Modern and Effective  Labour Inspection Systems- ILO

V.            EPSU Report Labour Inspection Services

VI.            A Brief Note on Labour Legislation of India

VII.            Enforcement Manual for Inspectors- Department of Labour

VIII.            Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

IX.            Standing Orders Act, 1946

X.            ICAI, ICWAI, ICSI Study Materials

XI.            Labour & Industrial Laws by S.N.MISHRA

XII.            Labour Laws by Rosedar SRA ( Lexis Nexis)

XIII.            Industrial Relations and Labour Law by S.C.Srivastava

XIV.            Introduction to Labour and Industrial Law by Avatar Singh & Harpreet Singh

 

[1]Patna Electricity Supply workers Union v. A. Hussain, A.I.R. 1968 Pat. 427
[2]BijliMazdoorSangh v. Resident Engineer Allahabad, A.I.R. 1970 all. 589
[3] (1993) I L.L.J 991 (Delhi)
[4] A.R. Das Gupta v. Assam Tribunal, Guwahati, A.I.R. 1965 Assam 40

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