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This article is written by Sonia Balhara from Sushant University, Gurgaon. This article deals with the study of unity in diversity, its importance, various factors that lead to it.


As we all know India is a country of unity in diversity. The mountain ranges, river-irrigated areas, rivers, and streams, forest, and desert all have beautified India with their outstanding diversity amongst people various races, castes, creed, religion, and languages each state and region has its uniqueness International local travellers or visitors love this variety colours, culture, and the climate, etc. Dance & music, colourful festivals and beautiful handiworks a spell on the visitors both National and international. Beaches of Goa, backwaters of Kerala, and snow-clad mountains of Himachal, and sands, & lakes of Rajasthan, world culture sights of Delhi etc are the symbol of the diversity of our nation. This colourful variety of a country makes our country a major attraction of tourists that is beneficial for the Economy, and prosperity of the country.

However, many of the differences in religions, traditions, languages and cultures have become so intense that they have assumed dangerous proportions for National Unity and safety. We not only have to provide the best facilities and safety to foreign tourists but also to maintain peaceful and amicable coextensive people belonging to different ethnicities and cultures. Without peace, our diversity is of no use. It is the common duty of the government and the people of India to keep the beautiful diversity of our nation secured in the card of unity intact.

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Meaning of unity in diversity

The term unity in diversity relates to the state of togetherness or integrity despite the presence of infinite diversity. Unity in diversity is based on the concept where the individual has variations in physical qualities, skin colour, castes, creed, cultural and religious traditions, etc. are not seen as a dispute. Rather, these differences are viewed upon as varieties that improve the society and the nation as a whole.

In India, the national unions only can be the establishment of a strong, unified and prosperous Indian, usually in the days of extremism and terrorism. Mahatma Gandhi sacrificed his life for communal unity. Though, there are different communities like Bengalis, Gujaratis, Punjabis, Maharashtrians, Tamilians, etc. the facts remain that despite divisions and differences, caste or creed, we have lived together for thousands of years. Though, there are differences between the Hindu and the Muslim communities concerning their cultures, ideology, and rituals. They live together and have a deep-rooted respect for each other. The Hindus send greetings to their Muslim friends at the time of their Muslim festivals such as Eid, Muharram, etc. likewise, the Muslims also send wishes or greetings to their Hindu friends at the time of Hindu festivals such as Diwali, Durga puja, etc. this describes the majority of unity among the Hindus and the Muslims in India.

On many topics, they influence one another and are motivated by the ideals of oriental civilization. India is a large country. Different regions observe changes in climate. The spoken language of one state is quite different from other states. They wear different types of clothes, they celebrate different festivals and play varied religious rituals. People belonging to different cultures belong to different religious beliefs.

Origin of unity in diversity

The term unity of diversity signifies the unity between people with different cultural, religious faiths, social status and other demographic variations. This expression has its organizations, since ancient times, it is used by various political and social assemblies to show unity among the individuals or societies. This is an ancient expression that was earlier used by some societies in North America and China, around 500 BC. Unity in India is the best model of unity in diversity because people living with various religions and cultures follow the same laws as laid down by the Constitution of India.

Importance of unity in diversity

Unity in diversity is very much important for a country for:

National Integration

Unity in diversity is very essential for a country because it is a very simple task to divide people with different views and ideas. If there is a unity between people despite their variations and it is very difficult to disintegrate the nation. The unity among the citizens of the country plays a great role in maintaining peace and prosperity in the nation.

Development and growth

Unity in diversity plays a vital role in the growth of the country because the united country will always move on the path of development. It will face some internal issues than a country that is socially weak and distributed on different terms.

Global recognition

A country that is assorted, but still it is united, not only joins value to the nation but is also appreciated on international platforms. It sets an example for all nations by highlighting the values ​​and morals of citizens who respect and encourage each other despite their different backgrounds and cultures.

Peaceful co-existence

Diversity can also be the reason for the origin of internal disputes but unity in diversity plays a big role in maintaining peaceful co-existence with people with different cultures and backgrounds.

The difference between unity and diversity

There is a sense of togetherness and integration of unity. Its spirit holds people together and the bond that guides the path of righteousness.

Unity represents the relationship between the various parties that binds them together as one unit. It can even be argued that the lack of distinction between people of different races is supported by religious, linguistic, or racial aspects.

In contrast, diversity refers to something different. It is defined because the collective differences of various groups supported religion, race or language etc. It’s a diversity of classes and groups living in several regions, with different cultures, traditions and backgrounds.

Diversity can be something that helps bring about different perspectives, experiences and acceptances among people. Unity can be a state of existence while diversity can be a state of division or diversity. A family may have people with different views, interests, or ideas who express their differences in many respects, but as a family, they show the way to unity among themselves.

Merits and demerits of unity in diversity


  • Unity in diversity increases the morale of individuals within the workplace, organization and community.
  • It helps to expand collaboration, relationships, interactions between people, thereby improving performance, quality of work, productivity and lifestyle.
  • This enables communication to thrive even under the most trying circumstances.
  • Keep people removed from social ills and it helps to manage conflicts more easily.
  • It promotes healthy human relationships and protects the equal rights of all people.
  • Unity in diversity provides a source of tourism for India. People from all walks of life, cultures, religions, and clothing are attracted to many visitors and tourists from all over the world.
  • This, though distinctly different from one another, results in the practice of national unity among the peoples of the world.
  • It strengthens and enhances the rich heritage of the country and moreover as a cultural heritage of India.
  • It helps to fill the agricultural sector with biodiversity as well as economic expectations.
  • A source of skilled and developing professionals in various parts of the country.


  • This can give rise to multiple social strains among various states and people of linguistic origin.
  • It produces corruption and illiteracy in many regions of the country.
  • Due to the undeveloped foundation, power deficiency, roads etc. it can be the origin of poor lifestyle in various pastoral areas.

Unity in diversity in ancient India

Ancient Indian history is exciting because many races and tribes mingled in early India. The pre-Aryans, the Indo-Aryans, the Greek, the Scythians, the Hunas, the Turks, and many others made their homes in India. Every ethnic group gave its mite to the development of the Indian social system, art and architecture, language, and literate. All these peoples and their cultural features blended so inseparably that they can be recognised in their original form. 

An incredible feature of ancient Indian culture has been the combining of cultural components from the north to south, and the east to west. The Aryan factors are equalised with the Vedic and puranic culture of the north and pre-Aryan with the Dravidian and Tamil culture of the south.’

They symbolise ideas, organisations, goods, and settlements connected with peninsular and non- Vedic India. Furthermore, many pali and Sanskrit terms, implying ideas and organisations, formed in the Gangetic plains, appear in the earliest Tamil texts called the Sangam literature which is brutally used for the period 300 BC-AD 600. The eastern area occupied by the pre-Aryan tribes made its contribution.

The people of these regions spoke the Munda or Kolarian language. Different terms that imply that usage of cotton, navigation, digging stick, etc., in the Indo-Aryan language have been traced to the Munda languages by scholars. Although there are many Munda hollows in Chhota Nagpur plateau, the remains of Munda culture in the Indo-Aryan culture are fairly strong. Many Dravidian terms are also to be located in the Indo-Aryan languages. It was held that changes in the phonetics and glossary of the Vedic languages can be described as much based on the Dravidian importance as that of the Munda.

India in ancient times has been a land of several religions. Ancient Indian viewed the birth of Brahmanism or Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, but all these cultures and religions socialised. Therefore, Indian speak various languages, practice several religions, and perceive various social customs, they follow several common styles of life. Our country shows a deep-rooted unity notwithstanding great diversity. The Indian subcontinent was geographically well settled and its geographical unit was enhanced by cultural combination. Though there existed many states, literature, cultures, and communities gradually people developed territorial identity. The states or regional units, called janapadas, were named after various tribes. Though, the country as a whole came to be defined as Aryavarta after the dominant cultural society called the Aryans. Aryavarta signified the northern and central India and spread from the eastern a to the western sea coasts. Another name by which India was better known as Bharatavarsha or the land of Bharatas. 

Bharata, in the sense of family, figures in the Rig Veda and Mahabharata, but the name Bharatavarsha occurs in the Mahabharata and post-Gupta Sanskrit texts. This name was used to one of the nine members of the earth, and in the post-Gupta period, it denoted India. The term Bharati or a citizen of India occurs in post-Gupta texts.

The significance of the past to the present

Recent research in India sees special importance in the context of the problems we are currently facing. Some people are complaining about the restoration of ancient culture and civilization, and a large number are being swayed by what they consider to be India’s past glory. This is in contrast to the concern for the preservation of ancient artistic and architectural treasures.

What they want to bring back is the old way of society and culture. This requires a clear and accurate understanding of the past. There is no doubt that the ancient Indians made great strides in various fields, but this advancement alone will not enable us to compete with the achievements of modern science and technology. We cannot ignore the fact that the ancient Indian society was marked by gross social injustice.

Law orders, especially Shudras and untouchable ones were also included in the paralysis which is alarming to the modern mind. Likewise, law and culture discriminate against women based on race. Restoration of the old way of life will naturally regenerate and strengthen all these inequalities. The success of the ancients in increasing the complexity presented by nature and human resources can build our hope and confidence in the future but any attempt to restore the past will mean to increase the social inequalities that plagued India.

India will not grow fast unless those species of the past are eradicated from their society. The caste plan and the opposition system prevent the integration of democracy and development in India. Caste barriers and discrimination do not allow even educated people to appreciate the dignity of the craft and disrupt our meeting for the same reason. Although women have been given the rights of other people, their subjection to their age will prevent them from playing their proper role in society, and this also true of lower social norms.

Previous studies have helped us to examine the roots of this prejudice in more detail and to identify factors that support the caste system, subjugating women, and promoting less religious sects. The study of ancient Indian history, therefore, is not suitable not only for those who want to understand the nature of the ancient truth but also for those who want to understand the kind of barriers to the development of India as a nation.

Factors that influence to unity in diversity

Geographical unity

India may not be a mixed by itself but from times ancient India has been consi­dered as-one country. The only name Bharatvarsha has granted to this country emphasis this unity. According to the authors of ‘Advance History of India’, the word and the concept of unity mean, “have always existed in the minds of theologians, political philosophers, and poets who spoke of the thousands of yojanas (leagues) of the land that stretches from the Himalayas to the sea as the customary field of a single universal emperor.” 

Throughout medieval times, Muslim rulers too considered it one country and made every effort to seize it. Nature has also favoured regional unity by providing the Himalayas North and the sea to the other three sides of the country, and thus completely separating India from other countries.

The rivers of India are also responsible for giving a sense of unity to the country. Some of the rivers are of divine origin and are considered sacred by all Indians. For example, Ganga is worshipped in all the tour guides. Pilgrims from all over the country continue to visit the shrines standing on their banks. Other rivers, such as the Yamuna and Saraswati rivers, are also considered sacred by the people throughout the country. In short, we can say that despite the geographical diversity the country has enjoyed a common sense of unity. 

Racial unity

There is no doubt that the people of India belong to distinctive races but they are so much engaged in the Hindu fold that they have completely lost their separate reality. It is a recognised fact that the people of India, to whichever race or area they might belong, are known as Indian or Hindustani. This is clear evidence of the underlying racial unity of the people.

Linguistic unity

Although India maintains a variety of language, In the 3rd century B.C. the Prakrit was accepted as the common language of the people. According to Dr Ray Chaudhri, “Prakrit was the one only language enough to bring the information of a royal minister to the bars of his enduring subject during this huge kingdom.” After Prakrit, Sanskrit became the common language of the masses. Another local language which subse­quently realised influence began out of Sanskrit. Some of the leading Indian languages which owe their rise to Sanskrit include Hindi, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil. Sanskrit followed as the lingua franca throughout ancient times.

Throughout the Medi­eval times also though the Sanskrit language was not spread royal support by the Muslim rulers, the rulers in the South continued to favour it and it continued to increase. With the coming of the British, English shifted lingua franca. After independence, this role has been carried over by Hindi. The text of the various languages used in India also maintains a certain amount of regularity. Almost all the texts are based on the Brahmin script. The literature originated in different Indian languages also maintains a component of unity.

Religious and social Unity

In the religious sphere and in spite of diversity, the type of unity has grown among the various religious denominations in that country. India was primarily a Hindu country and its culture was based on the Varnashrama Dharma Vya-vastha, e.g. Caste, Ashrams and Dharma. 

People in all four corners of the globe followed these principles. People also worship the same Hindu deities throughout the land, although they are assigned different names in different names in different regions. The Hindu religious activities of Ramayana and Mahabharata were also popular throughout the country and the Indians in the north and south, as well as in the east and west, placed great importance on these activities. 

Likewise, the Vedas, Puranas, and other religious texts are given due recognition by people from all parts of the world. Also, every Indian person regardless of his unity, creed and ethnicity believes in the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul, the rule of one person, the immortality of the soul, the karate of the flesh, the redemption of the Moksha, etc. people living in different parts of the world practice the same customs and religions. Even Hindu religious sites such as Ayodhya, Avantika, Mathura, Gaya, Kashi, Sanchi, and Puri are found in the four corners of the country. 

Hindu festivals like Holi, Diwali are also celebrated in all religions of the country. People of all faiths are involved in this celebration. We, therefore, find that despite the diversity of religions there is a great diversity of cultures that is largely influenced by the diversity of religions.

Dr. V. A. Smith says, “the important unity of the Indians is based on the fact that the different people of India form a certain kind of culture and civilization, which can be called Hindustani.” He also said that, “the nature of his development has many distinguishing features from all other regions of the country, or a small continent with an adequate level of management of its administration as a unit in the social, religious and intellectual history of humanity.”

Religious and cultural unity has also led to unity in the social sphere. People of various religions have gone to great lengths to establish their dress and grooming.

Political unity

In the political arena, national unity has been one of the greatest goals which most of the Indian rulers appreciated. Undoubtedly, India was divided into various small institutions but the powerful rulers were always eager to bring all these territories under their control. They were determined to take the title of Chakravarti. According to Kautilya, the base of the Chakravarti kings was extended from the Himalayas to the sea. In other words, according to Kautilya, the king was regarded as Charravati only when he succeeded in increasing his power or supremacy over the whole country. Ordinarily, such titles were considered by the king after the due completion of rituals and sacrifices.

In ancient times, Chandra Gupta Maurya, Ashoka and Samundra Gupta brought out all the Indian Empires. During ancient times, Ala-ud-Din-Khilji and Aurangzeb made efforts and succeeded in establishing their rule throughout the country. These Muslim rulers were provided with a common system of governance, common laws and customs, common gatherings etc, and thus introduced a form of political unity throughout the country. We therefore find that although there are different religions, cultures, languages, geographical diversity, etc. India had enjoyed some kind of unity.  

Unity in diversity in Indian society

India has been an excellent example of providing this concept for many years. More than 1,000,650 languages are spoken in India. People from different religious backgrounds and cultures live here. They follow the different religions of their choice because India is a secular country. Related to different cultures, languages, and religions, the people here respect one another and live in a spirit of love and brotherhood. India, a 5000-year-old civilization is a country of diversity, be it religion, race, caste, culture or language, there is so much diversity in the country. There are about 29 regions and each country has its own culture and language. Every year more than 30 new festivals are celebrated for the various communities in the country. Despite such differences, the Indian people display a genuine sense of unity among themselves that reflect the concept of unity in diversity of India is considered to be unique in a world that threatens global society. This is because of the ancient Indian culture that taught the people and the same bond of nationality.

People from all parts of the world are joining the brotherhood. Unity in diversity is a positive aspect of our nation because people of different religions have had a human band for many years. If we are not united, we will surely fall which means “united we stand and we are divided we fall”. The constitution of India gives all citizens the right and freedom to live their lives with dignity and respect without interference.

The main reasons behind the unity in diversity in India

India has seen the cultural history of experiments creating new forms, the diversity of which can be felt in terms of the number of cultural, religious, linguistic, functional units and political parties. These differences can easily be attributed simply to previous years of migration, exchange, initiation and comparison and the separation of natural boundaries. The transition period and in the current situation with a population of about 1.33 million. India introduces a border of different cultures and traditions, we see the rise of faith, from prehistoric times to the Vedic period. Although it was present at the adoption of this form, it differed from region to region, and sometimes when the Aryans arrived, different tribal societies had different values ​​and different metals of the same values ​​giving the same heritage for several generations.

Hierarchical systems were widely known, they differed from region to region. Hindus, therefore, appear not only as a religion but as a single view of different practices. As well as the migration of other strong religious communities in India, especially the long-standing Islam and Christianity in India. Cultural integration and doctrinal growth, the development of tolerance and solidarity in India. Religions such as Judaism from around the world were bound in small pockets in the Indian subcontinent.

When other religions such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism were formed in India they committed themselves to heal the region and did not make much difference. The same effect of migration was seen when people of different races moved to India. They mingle, embrace their natural characters through the exchange of local population and produce new ways of culture and social designs, leading to a variety of lifestyles and lifestyles. The interaction of people with a multilingual family proves that it is the power of Indian cultural roots. Equal distribution is still prevalent in the divisions of Indian tribes. Some of them are far from the modern world of urbanization and modernization.

Our country is going through stages of cultural development following their ancient traditional values. It, therefore, exceeds the natural spirit and the ancestors worship one of the following theology. Although there are differences in our social structure, the unity of the caste system has led to the pain of preaching. We need acceptance, tolerance and correction in its spine. Our constitution also provides us with an independent, national, social and democratic republic, which we all enjoy with pride and happiness.

How our Indian Constitution shows unity in diversity in India

A constitution is an official document with specialized legal expertise, which sets out the framework and core functions of the organs of state, and sets out the principles that govern those functions. Like all other constitutions, the constitution of India also seeks to establish the basic structures of government and administration, undermines its structure, composition, powers and functions, defines intergovernmental relations, and regulates relations between citizens and the state. It was in 1934 that the idea of a meeting in India was first conveyed by M.N.Roy.

In 1938, Jawaharlal Nehru, instead, the Indian National Congress (INC) declared that ‘the free constitution of India must be formed without external interference. The meeting was attended by the representative of all sections of the Indian-Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Parsis, Anglo-Indian communities, Indian Christians, SCs and STs including women of all denominations. In all communities, a draft committee overseeing the critical Dr B.R. Ambedkar moved a motion- ‘the constitution as established by the convention was passed.’ moving forward the constitution was promulgated on November 26, 1949, and the rest of the amendment began on January 26, 1950, the day commemorating and celebrated as Republic day of India.

The first section of our Constitution states, “India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.” India emerged as an international organization and was released into the hands of the British raj. Several tribes, divided and ruled, came together to form the Indian union. According to the preamble, India is a sovereign, socialist, special, and the democratic republic. The word “emperor” emphasizes that India is no longer dependent on any foreign power. The term “socialist” is included in the preamble of the constitutional amendment act, 1976. In general, it refers to a form of ownership and distribution by the state. The term “secularism” refers to a state that does not have its religions as an accepted state religion. He treats all religions equally. The term “democracy” indicates that the constitution established a democratic form of government. The constitution, through its fundamental rights, fundamental principles and principles, created a world government based on the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Judiciary after a thorough consideration of the constituent assembly, the founding fathers formed a reference to justice through the power of judicial review. ‘Is considered a judiciary of rights and justice’. 

Justice is the only way citizens can apply the principles of the constitution and protect their rights. The constitution of India pays special attention to providing an effective legal solution. As Article 32 empowers the court to issue orders or directors, including writs in the forms of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto, and certiorari, whichever is appropriate, in the enforcement of any fundamental right, Indian justice brings measures such as public interest litigation, right to information and gives all children the right to education. And the intergovernmental relations for this purpose were to ensure national unity and integrity while simultaneously carrying out the task of economic reconstruction through democratic means and to achieve this goal and to meet the special needs of India. 


Unity in diversity instructs us that although we are from diverse caste, creed or race, these variations cannot keep us apart and we are eternally united for the improvement of our nation. This is the most uncommon event which is exposed in our country. It not only performs the nation united and strengthened but it also holds us alive in the old eras, the belief of co-existence with love, peace, and respect. The distinction in culture, traditions, festivals, music and dance makes the country energetic and makes an unbelievable country in the world.


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