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This article has been written by James Sibi pursuing the Diploma in Advanced Contract Drafting, Negotiation and Dispute Resolution from LawSikho. This article has been edited by Dipshi Swara (Senior Associate, Lawsikho).


A time and materials contract, often known as a T&M contract, is a contract that reimburses one party for the price of supplies used to accomplish a work, as well as a specified hourly rate and additional fees connected to the services offered. When the hiring party does not know how long the job will take, how much it will cost, or how rigid the conditions will be, this form of contract is pursued. For some parties, this sort of contract may appear to be too difficult to manage. For others, it offers them the ability to easily get started by focusing their remuneration on the effort expected rather than understanding everything about the project before it begins. To know whether or not this contract is suitable for you begins with looking at some pros and cons of the materials contract and determining whether it could be used in the particular situation.

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What are the pros and cons of using time and materials contracts?

Every contract comes with advantages and disadvantages that are to be analysed before making the specific contract for persons or entities. What are some pros and cons of time and material contracts? Let us unravel some of it to get a clearer picture of what one should expect while choosing time and material contracts over other options.

Advantages of T&M Contracts

  • Gives you the freedom you need in your contract as you’re going to have to pay a predetermined price for the materials and time taken to finish the project.
  • As the  terms and conditions are defined quickly when drafting a T&M contract, negotiating them should be easy ( As long as you and the contractors can reach a mutual agreement and neither party tries to negotiate conditions that exclusively benefit them, everything should be OK.)
  • Enables you to establish a certain amount of time for a task to avoid dealing with clients that usually take as long as they want to make more money.
  • When pursuing this form of contract, there would be fewer repercussions if there were any setbacks or tasks were completed faster than planned.  In general, Time and Material contracts give you the freedom you need when you can’t accurately predict the scope of a project when hiring a contractor.

However, there are certain disadvantages to choosing a T&M contract over a fixed-price contract, which has a specified completion date and precise terms and conditions for the cost of materials and compensation.

When to use time and material contracts?

These are the five scenarios in which a time and material contract would be preferable over a fixed price arrangement.

  1. Unpredictable Situations

Costs are easy to predict when the needs, timelines, and exact tasks are known before the job begins. If a customer does not have a clear picture of what they want, it is impossible to predict what the result will be. Timelines can also be connected with uncertainty. If there is no defined timeframe or if those are likely to vary, time and material contracts should be considered.

When many of the project details are to be discussed when you are working out a contract, then a time and materials contract is the right way to go. Otherwise, you risk spending a lot more than you make.

  1. When Both Parties Can Agree

Some clients dislike working with time and material contracts. Knowing the pricing fits into their budget and would be more convenient for them. These arrangements increase the owner’s risk while protecting your reward. However, when a client is unable to determine the scope of work, a time and materials contract assures the success of your firm.

Assure clients that labour and material expenses will be determined in advance. Consider operating under not-to-exceed circumstances and informing the customer when you cross certain thresholds. 

  1. When There’s Need for Flexibility

A time and material contract allows you to be flexible while working on a long-term project with frequent changes in requirements.

If timeframes are going to alter, you must be able to accommodate extended work hours and overtime. If changes are made to the project or parts of it are dropped, you must be able to account for them in the final expenses.

  1. When You’re New to the Industry

As a new contractor, you may be ignorant of hidden fees, expenditures, and overhead that must be covered. You could be uncertain about how much to mark up supplies or were to offer a discount for long-term projects.

You can’t offer an accurate quotation if you don’t have a method for correctly evaluating costs. You also run the danger of underestimating how long it will take to finish a job.

This might result in overestimation. You’ll be quoting higher than others in the sector, and you’ll lose jobs as a result. It can also result in underestimation. You risk not being able to pay expenses and earn a profit if you underquote. People may employ you because you quoted a lower price, but you will lose money.

Using a time and material contract might assist you in developing estimation skills. You will have a better understanding of what it takes to complete a task while making a profit.

Disadvantages of T&M Contracts

T&M contracts, despite their significant attractiveness, can have a lot of drawbacks for consumers, bidders, and contractors.

  • If you don’t include a not-to-exceed provision and limit on costs, you could run into problems with negotiations or contractors taking advantage of the gaps.
  • You must deal with the time-consuming process of effectively monitoring the material used in the task and also the hourly wages, which can be tough to do, particularly if you operate your own small business. In a T&M contract, the amount of engagement required is considerably more than in a fixed-price contract.
  • As there is no set budget, overall expenditures might easily surpass what you expect to pay at the outset.
  • Contractors may not be familiar with the intricacies of accounting in the context of accounting. They may bill irregularly and carelessly without understanding the basic concepts like markup and margin.
  • Contractors who accept T&M contracts may be short on funds and need to get the project done as soon as possible.
  • Contractors who adopt T&M contracts are frequently newer or inexperienced businessmen who may not have spent a significant amount of time in the sector.
  • Contractors may find themselves with large expenditures towards the end of a project that cannot be recovered due to the provisions of a T&M contract.

As there are so many unknown factors in a project that leads to a T&M contract, there are several possible drawbacks. It is vital to evaluate whether or not the drawbacks exceed the danger. If so, you may want to take your time and conduct further study on your project and consider other options like a fixed price contract.

Risks involved in time and material contracts

A time and materials contract carries some risk. If you are going to use this approach, be sure you are aware of the risks and are willing to accept the consequences.

  • These contracts are more likely to result in a lawsuit than fixed-price contracts.
  • You might be charged with failing to act in good faith, which is a violation of the law. This occurs when the actual cost exceeds the projected cost.
  • It is fairly usual for clients to run out of money before the project is completed. This occurs when they have made several adjustments that have resulted in a rise in cost and run out of money before the work is completed.
  • When a client runs out of funds, you may be accused of downplaying the estimate and would be obligated to complete the project for the amount you were paid.
  • Clients may monitor staff productivity, including hours worked and breaks taken. They may also be unwilling to pay for required break breaks and time spent having essential talks with employees, inspectors, and other job site personnel.

Some of these elements are negotiable in a contract, while others are not. Be aware of the hazards of a time and materials contract, and make certain that you trust your customer not to take advantage of your labour.

Contracts for time and materials have certain common drawbacks. Owners or clients may attempt to negotiate not-to-exceed conditions, lower material markups or lower billing per-hour rates, decreasing the contractor’s profit. Due to their internal cost structure, clients would sometimes establish pricing that is lower than market rates, or vice versa.


Many prospective customers are just not used to dealing with time and materials contracts, making it difficult to locate new business possibilities. Customers usually prefer fixed-price contracts. Time and materials contracts should be written in such a way that the contractor may bill enough money to cover fixed expenses. When billable hours are cut, fixed expenses must be cut at the same rate as billable hours.

Handling this type of deal might be risky. Fortunately, these risks can be mitigated. If you wish to utilise a time and materials contract for a project, you can lower your risks by hiring a contract lawyer. A contract lawyer who specialises in your industry can help you draft a solid T&M contract that provides beneficial terms for both you and the client and ensure that you are not missing any important clauses that could be detrimental to your business later.



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