This article is written by Aarchie Chaturvedi, a first-year student currently pursuing BA-LLB from the National University of Study and Research in Law, Ranchi. In this article, she discusses the evil of acid attack in Indian society.
“Acid is a weapon; You know how America is talking about guns? That’s how acid is used in India.”
These were the words of an acid attack victim published in a newspaper report. They show the mental conditions of the survivors of acid attacks. In reality, they feel equal or more hurt, in their lives than a person who is shot with a bullet. It is very difficult for them to heal. According to Tania Singh, the CEO of ‘Make love Not Scars’ approximately 300 cases of acid attacks are reported every year and there are 1000’s of cases that go unreported. This crime can happen to anyone irrespective of their gender, class, caste, sex, religion, and age. However, statistics show that it mostly happens with women. In very few cases the cause for this crime is land and property dispute otherwise majorly, the most common reasons for this crime are the refusal for marriage, the denial of sex, or the rejection of romance by the female gender. This crime is instigated by deep-rooted jealousy, feelings of enmity, hatred or revenge against the women. In this article, we will be dealing with the various laws in India covering this offence, the afterlife of a survivor, landmark cases and the success story of some of the survivors.
Acid attack as discussed under IPC 1862, and Indian Evidence Act, 1872
Now let’s first discuss what is acid. The Indian Penal Code does not provide a definition as to what is an acid.
Acid is a substance with a PH below 7, sour taste, releases hydroxyl and turns litmus paper red. Strong acids are corrosive in nature while weak ones are harmless. Sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid which are easily available in the market are used by men as a weapon to exploit women. At some places where acids are controlled substances, aqueous solutions of strongly alkaline materials such as caustic soda are also used.
Throwing of acid or any inherently dangerous or corrosive substance is commonly referred to as ‘Acid Attack’. In many cases, the victim was attacked by a man or a group of men known to her.
Causing grievous hurt by weapons or other means was not very successful in dealing with this heinous crime. Hence the 18th Law Commission headed by Justice A.R. Lakshmanan proposed a new Section 326 A and 326 B in the IPC and Section 114B in the Evidence Act.
Section 326 A of IPC states that whoever causes grievous hurt to a person by administering or throwing acid on them, with the intention of causing such injury or with the knowledge that he/she can cause such injury, causes injury in the form of partial or permanent damage, burns or maims, disfiguring or disabling of part or parts of body then under these circumstances he/she would be liable for imprisonment for a period of not less than 10 years which can be extended to life accompanied with fine. The text of this section further also contains some clarifications which are as follows:
- All damages must be just and reasonable so as to meet the medical expenses of the victim.
- All damages would be given to the victim.
- For the purpose of this particular section, the word ‘acid’ is not restricted to those substances which show properties of acid according to science but the word acid here means all the substances of corrosive or acidic nature which can cause burns or are capable of causing bodily injury or scars which can lead to disfiguring/disability in the body temporarily or permanently.
- For the claiming of damages for compensation under this crime, the injury caused need not be of irreversible nature.
Section 326B of IPC further lays down the punishment for the attempt of throwing acid on someone. According to this section, a person for an attempt to throw acid shall be liable for punishment that would be of minimum 5 years which can even be extended to 7 years accompanied by a fine.
Section 114B, of Evidence Act, added by the Criminal (Amendment) Act, 2013 states that if acid is thrown or administered on one person by the other person, then the court in such circumstances will presume that such an act has been done with the intention of causing bodily injury as mentioned in Section 326 A of the IPC.
Consequences of Acid Attack on the victim
“People say inner beauty matters, but in reality, only a few people go beyond physical features.” These were the words of an acid attack victim, Lakshmi Agarwal. After the incident took place Lakshmi could not understand what happened. She was so traumatized that she didn’t even touched her face or looked at the mirror for months. She even contemplated suicide. The condition of Lakshmi is no different from other victims. Her story depicts how horrified or shocked each victim of an acid attack is after such incident happens to them. Let us discuss in detail the various consequences of such a crime.
Injuries and Physical Consequences
Acid is capable of eating two layers of skin. Sometimes when acid is thrown, not only the fat and muscles are broken down but also the bone is dissolved. The depth of the injury depends upon the power of the acid and the duration for which it was in contact with the skin. As soon as the acid comes in contact with the face of the person it quickly eats into the eyes, ears, nose and mouth. Eyelids and lips may burn off completely. Ears wither up. The nose may fuse closing the nostrils. Wherever the acid may drip from the face, neck, shoulders or arms, it burns everywhere. Burning would continue until the acid is completely washed off with water.
The worst and the most immediate danger for the victim is breathing failure. Inhaling of acids can create breathing problems in two ways:
- By causing a poisonous reaction in the lungs, or
- Swelling of the neck which obstructs the airway and strangulates the victim.
After burns heal, scars are formed. The scars pull the skin very tight and cause disfigurements. Some examples of disfigurements are:
- Eyelids may not close;
- Mouth may not open, lips tore down;
- Chin becomes wielded to the chest;
- The nose is shrunken, nostrils are closed completed, cartilage may be destroyed;
- Cheeks become scarred;
- The chest may have narrow lines or the wide spots of the scars caused by the acid that dripped or sprinkled upon it;
- The shoulder may be damaged to the extent that the victim’s arms movement may be restricted.
Lakshmi Agarwal (the acid attack victim) mentioned in one of her interviews that people in the society, mostly women taunted her, spoke ill about her and her family. Pain is not only internal but also external imposed by the comments and the taunts of the society. Society does not accept them as a normal human being. You continue to face discrimination from society for years. Victims are not able to leave their homes thinking they would be made fun of. They fear the antagonistic attitude of the general public towards them. Victims who were not married are unlikely to get married evin the future.
The victims because of their disability are unable to work which leads them to be dependent on someone else for their food & shelter. Even if the victim is able to do some work, they won’t get any work. The employers while assessing the qualification, talents, and capabilities also tend to assess the looks of the individual which often leads to these victims being rendered jobless.
Not only victims feel shocked or traumatized in general but they also feel traumatized in the way they feel and think about themselves, society and everything. This occurs due to the horror they suffer while being attacked. This feeling of terror also dwells in them because it is unbearable for them to accept that they have to live with whatever disability they suffered throughout their lives. They suffer from depression weakness, tiredness, lack of concentration, dearth of hope for years if not for their entire life.
Cases related to acid attack
Lakshmi v/s Union of India
In this case of Lakshmi v/s Union of India, Lakshmi (the victim) was attacked by acid when she was 16 years old. She was attacked by a man whom she refused to marry. Lakshmi in 2006 filed a PIL in the Supreme Court. Apart from asking for compensation, she also asked for the creation of new laws and amendment of the existing laws related to acid attacks. She demanded the complete ban or curb on the sale of acids in the market.
The Supreme Court directed the Central Government to sit and work with the State Governments to draft a plan to curb the sale of acids in order to stop chemical attacks. However, seeing the non-seriousness on the part of the central and state governments in regards to the crime, the Supreme Court on its own formulated a new set of guidelines and passed a ruling in favor of Lakshmi. According to the guidelines laid down:
- Acid cannot be sold to anyone who is below the age of 18 years;
- If you want to purchase acid you have to furnish your photo identity proof.
These legislations were passed by the court because one of the major reasons for the increasing number of acid attacks is the unauthorized sale of acids in the market. It is so readily available that it has become the easiest means for committing crimes against women. Hydrochloric acid is as cheap as buying a bar of soap. Furthermore, there is no regular check or inspection of stocks of acid as there is for other explosives.
However, Lakshmi has claimed that despite the regulations not many things have changed. Acid is still freely available in the shops. She along with some volunteers has herself gone and purchased acids. Nevertheless, it is argued that completely banning acids is not possible as acids are used for some other purposes also like in cleaning, in the making of car batteries, etc. It was suggested that the discouragement of the use of acid should come in some other way like passing laws that provide for more harsh punishments to the offenders who commit the horrendous crime.
Parivartan Kendra v/s Union of India, (2016) 3 SCC 571
In this case of Parivartan Kendra v/s Union of India, an NGO named Parivartan Kendra exercised their right to file a writ petition in the Supreme Court under Article 32. They tried to address the plight of the acid attack victims which was not getting any better even after the pronouncement of the Supreme Court’s judgment in the case of Lakshmi v/s Union of India. The NGO wanted to draw the court’s attention towards the increasing number of cases of acid attacks which proves the inefficiency of the laws and regulations which were in place.
This case was filed after acid was thrown on an 18-year old Dalit girl named Chanchal living in a village in Bihar. Initially, she was verbally and sexually harassed by 4 persons (who are the convicts). But one day, one of the 4 persons climbed the roof of her house. Chanchal was sleeping with her sister at that time. The accused grabbed the opportunity and threw acid on Chanchal’s face. Not only Chanchal, but her sister as well, endured the injuries. Some of the drops of the acid cascaded on Chanchal’s sister too. They were taken to the hospital where the doctors delayed their treatment and their condition worsened. Chanchal’s father had to pay for the expenditure on medication which amounted to 5 lakh rupees. He was not able to pay that large amount and he came under debt. The family also suffered mistreatment by the doctors owing to their caste. The police also didn’t do anything until pressure was created by the media and other local people, after which the police took under arrest the accused, without recording the statements of the girls.
After much deliberation, Chanchal’s father arranged for 3 lakh Rupees which was given for the treatment of the girls under the light of the case of Lakshmi v/s Union of India. But the amount was not enough to cover the losses suffered by the family.
Free medical care, medicines, daily check-up expenses were also found necessary. Hence Chanchal’s father approached the petitioner who after analyzing the whole case filed a writ petition.
The petitioner raised the issues that:
- Whether the amount of 3 lakh rupees was sufficient for victims of the acid attack as decided in the case of Lakshmi v/s Union of India;
- Whether there is a requirement for systematized treatment and health management guidelines for faster recovery of acid attack survivors;
- Whether additional measures are needed to be taken for securing the fundamental right of victims.
The Court after analyzing the facts of the case and issues raised came with the judgment that:
- Rs 3 lakh should be made the minimum compensation that will be given to a victim;
- Held the State Governments careless that even after so many regulations there were not able to control the distribution of acid and prevent it from going to the wrong hands;
- Observed that the States failed to adhere to the ‘Victim Compensation Scheme’ and provided a very scant amount of compensation that was not sufficient;
- Allowed for compensation of Rupees 10 lakh for Chanchal and for Rupees 3 lakh for her sister, to be paid within a period of three months;
- Took the responsibility of dealing with such victims themselves and asked the State to make provisions for including acid attack victims in the disability list.
State of Maharashtra v/s Ankur Panwar (Preeti Rathi Case), 2019
The case of State of Maharashtra v/s Ankur Panwar is about a 23-year-old girl who was looking forward to establish her career. She got a job as a nurse in a hospital in Mumbai. The accused then once asked her to marry him. However, the victim refused as she was concerned about her career. The accused then not only became agitated on being refused for marriage but was also jealous of the victim as she could get a job when he was unemployed. Therefore, under the subsistence of this rage, when once the victim was traveling by train he threw acid on her. The victim accidentally swallowed some drops of the acid. Even a bit of acid is very dangerous. So, it was then very difficult for the victim to survive. She was admitted to the hospital but could only live for a month as she was not able to sustain the fatal injuries caused by the acid attack.
The case was heard by a Special Court women judge A.S Shinde who at first pronounced death sentence for the accused in line with Bangladesh’s Acid Crime Suspension Act.
This judgment was given by her because what happened had not happened ever before. A victim dying because of Acid Attack was something very shocking, even for the bench and therefore for the gruesome incident, a gruesome punishment was given. However, it was observed by the court that no one was sentenced till date for this offense. Therefore bearing in mind the gravity of the offence and keeping in line with the earlier Supreme Court judgments, the punishment was changed from a death sentence to life imprisonment.
After ordering the punishment, the courts also ordered the guilty to pay a fine of Rs 5000 to the parents of the victim.
Srimanthula Chinna Sathaiah and Anr. Vs. The State of A.P.
In this case of Srimanthula Chinna Sathaiah and Anr. Vs. The State of A.P enmity evolved between two men. The accused had a doubt that the other person had shown him to be a part of a crime. The accused also had a suspicion that his wife was having an extra-marital affair with the victim’s elder son. As a result, the accused drawn by the feelings of revenge threw acid upon the victim which caused her burns and injuries. The accused was charged under 302 of the IPC and was liable to the punishment of rigorous imprisonment.
Piyali Dutta vs State of West Bengal
In this case of Piyali Dutta v/s The State of West Bengal, the petitioner, Piyali Dutta, is an acid attack survivor who had written to the Chief Secretary, State of West Bengal requesting for interim compensation of Rs. 3 lakhs, pursuant to the acid attack. She received no response from the office of the Chief Secretary and finding no other alternative, was constrained to file a writ petition before the High Court at Calcutta.
The West Bengal State Legal Services Authority (SLSA) entered in the case and took the stance that in 2009, an amendment was made to the Code of Criminal Procedure, which entitled “acid attack victims to compensation”, and in 2013, the Supreme Court passed a landmark judgment in Laxmi v. Union of India, regarding compensation for acid attack victims. The SLSA stated that since the acid attack on the Petitioner was in 2005, much before the two above-mentioned events, the Petitioner would not be eligible for any compensation. The matter came up for hearing before the High Court at Calcutta. The court observed that according to the West Bengal Victim Compensation Scheme, 2017, the State or the District Legal Services Authority is empowered to decide an application for a grant of compensation under Section 357A(4). On July 7, 2017, the court passed a judgment asking the ‘appropriate authority’ to pass orders on the compensation issue. Piyali was granted a compensation of Rs 3 Lakh in February, 2018.
Compensation in cases of acid attacks as defined under CrPC
Apart from the IPC and the Evidence Act, the CrPC also deals with the crime of acid attacks. Section 357 A sub-section(1) states that every State Government with the help of the Central Government shall draw a scheme so as to provide compensation to those who require rehabilitation, or to the victims or the dependants of the victims, who suffered loss.
Subsection(2) of section 357A further states that if the recommendation is provided by the Court, then the State Legal Services Authority or the District Legal Services Authority( as the case may be) can decide what compensation is to be paid as mentioned in subsection (1).
Under sub-section(3), it is also stated that the Court may also order compensation if it feels that the compensation provided under Section 357 is not satisfactory for the rehabilitation of the victim or if the accused is discharged or acquitted the court may still for the rehabilitation of the victim re-commend compensation.
Sub-section (4) further talks about the rights of the victim. It says that if the offender cannot be found or traced, but the witness can be identified then the victim or his/her dependents can ask for compensation by writing an application to the State or District Legal Services Authority.
Sub-section(5) further facilitates the functioning of sub-section(4) by saying that if under such an application as mentioned under sub-section(4) the District Legal Services Authority feels satisfied after due inquiry that compensation is needed then it may provide such compensation.
The last subsection i.e sub-section(6) states that the State or the District Legal Services Authority should try to make immediate first-aid facility or medical benefits free of cost. This would help in reducing the sufferings of the victim. But these benefits will only be given on the certificate issued by a police officer not less than the rank of the magistrate of the area. Any other interim relief can be granted as deemed fit by the appropriate authority.
Section 357B of CrPC further clarifies that any compensation paid by the State to the victim under Article 357 shall be in addition to the compensation granted under 326 A, 376 AB, 376 D, 376 DA and 376 DB of the IPC. Section 357C of CrPC further tries to insist on the point of Section 357B by stating that all public and private hospitals run by local government, State Government or Central Government shall provide immediate assistance or medical help to victims of any offence covered under the Section 326A, 376, 376A, 376AB, 376B, 376C, 376D, 376DA, 376DB or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code, and shall immediately inform the police of such incident.
Treatment in cases of acid attack
- The first thing that should be done as soon as the acid gets in contact with the skin, is to wash the area with cold water for 60 minutes at least.
- Emergency treatment at hospitals should include cleaning and bandaging the wounds and easing any problem in breathing caused by the fumes of the acid.
- Infection is a major danger as the dead tissue around the burn gets infected and prevents the burn from healing. It can even spread to the healthy part of the skin and may even kill the victim within weeks or months right after the attack. Therefore it must be ensured that wounds are not infected and antibiotics are given to fight infection.
- Eyes are at the highest risk of catching an infection and therefore it must be ensured that eyes can be closed and are not dry and infected. Eyelids might also be required to be re-built in some cases. And even as the burn heals if there are thick scars near the eyes they need to be repaired by surgery.
- Eating is essential for fighting infections and for wounds to heal. However, eating could be difficult if there are wounds around the mouth, as it may lead to pain in swallowing the food.
- When burn heals (3 to 12-month process) they leave scars. Scars take over a year to change. However, during this time scars thicken and contract and so the victim can become permanently disabled by the stiffening of joints and the restricted movement. Thus the doctor would perform the operation to release the scars and graft new skin over them.
- Long periods of physical therapy are required to decrease the victim’s lack of movement due to the scars. Special elastic bandages can be used to reduce the thickness and firmness of the scars.
The last stage is to try restoring the appearance of the victim as much as possible, By this stage, the victim’s burns might have healed and the full extent of the scars on the body might be visible. This stage of restoring may require 2 to 3 years.
What not to do in the event of Acid Attack?
It is a common myth that milk can act as a soothing remedy in the case of an acid attack but it is not so. Milk is alkaline and when alkaline milk comes in contact with acid it will result in an exothermic reaction. It will cause more heat and can do more damage and increase the risk of infection. Thus always stick to water as a remedy.
Success story of some acid-attack survivors
Initially, when the incident happened Lakshmi was in a state of shock for two and a half months. She did not even had the courage to look at her face in the mirror. She was struggling to bear with the mental and physical toll of the attack. For days she remained inside a blanket and didn’t come out. Even a piece of cloth was like a weight on her. Managing her menstrual cycles was becoming a very arduous task for her. She wanted to commit suicide but thinking of her parents she didn’t give up on her life. After her treatment was over she started taking counseling. She simultaneously filed a case in the court in 2006( which we have discussed above and whose judgment came in 2013).
Lakshmi refused to suppress to the injustice that happened to her. Slowly with her parent’s support, she gained confidence and managed to join the National Institute of Open Schooling, Delhi. It was somewhere in 2009 that she realized that all the medication was futile if she was going to cover her face and therefore she removed her dupatta and started to move around freely. This move was very much criticized in her community. However, Lakshmi paid no heed to it and moved on with completing her diploma course. In 2013, she became a part of the ‘Stop Acid Attacks Campaign’ which was started by Alok Dixit and Asish Shukla.
In 2014 with the culmination of all of their efforts they started the ‘Chhanv Foundation’. With the help of this foundation, Lakshmi began to reach out to hundreds of victims and began to assist them with legal aid, treatment, medication, etc. She felt anger inside her as she met more and more patients. Her anger instilled the passion in her to do something more for the victims. Therefore she opened a cafe named Sheroes at Fatehabad Road in Agra to provide employment and job opportunities to the acid attack victims. According to her, a job opportunity boosts the confidence of the survivor and the family of the survivor. And at the same time, it gives a better chance to the victims and the general public to interact in the open and become sensitized. She also counsels the victims now. She teaches them how to move forward, what is the procedures that must be followed in the case of an attack. She even encourages the public to donate skin. She, through her foundation spreads awareness about the plight of acid attack survivors and simultaneously educate the society about the need for men to respect women, understand their consent, and flight for women’s rights. Lakshmi also won the International Women of Courage, Award in 2014. Hats-off to the bravery of people like Lakshmi.
Reshma was 17-year-old when she was attacked by acid. She was at the railway station of her hometown returning from Allahabad when a group of four men, including her sister’s husband hurled acid on her face and disfigured it completely. Reportedly her sister’s husband mistook her for her sister.
Reshma was very depressed after the attack. Gradually she tried coming over it and established her career in modeling. She made her debut in EndAcidSale which became a big hit. She also made videos on YouTube condemning the selling of acids in India. She became popular when she walked the ramp at the New York Fashion Week. Reshma became a blogger too, and has recently written a book titled Being Reshma describing her journey out of depression. In one of the events, she said that ”Make your heart beautiful; Beauty is not just about how you look.”
Anmol was two-years-old when her father threw acid on her mother. Her mother succumbed to her injuries and died, However when her father threw acid on her mother she was lying in the lap of her mother and suffered severe burns due to trickling down of droplets of acid. She underwent many injuries, lost one of her eyes and her face was permanently disfigured.
Anmol as a kid was kept in an orphanage where she suffered from the problem of socializing. She could not interact with friends. At some point of time in her life, she left her job because of the discrimination she faced at her workplace. However, she is now a fashion icon. She has modeled for several Instagram pages and YouTube channels. She is currently the face of an online brand selling nightwears. Anmol said that acid can only change our face but not ruin our soul. “We are the same inside out and we should accept ourselves for who we are and live our lives happily.”
More than 2 decades ago a man hurled acid on Madhu’s face. It melted the skin on her forehead and cheeks and blinded her in one eye. For years, she was not able to show her face in public. She could not find any job as she was told she looked very ugly for the front job.
However, in 2016, she joined ‘Sheroes Cafe’ as a waitress. Now she does not hide behind her scars as many tourists come to the cafe and take pictures of the staff including her. She now feels empowered and is now the sole earner in the family, supporting her husband and three children.
The present scenario in India and the international plane
Today, there is an increase in the number of acid attacks across countries. Bangladesh records the highest number of acid attacks. It is followed by countries like India, Cambodia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, etc. In Pakistan, the accessibility of acid is easy and so is the commission of attacks there. However, like India a few more countries have come with legislations to regulate the crime of acid attacks.
Laws made in Bangladesh
Bangladesh, the country recording the highest number of attacks came up in the year 2002 with rules and laws to fight the evil. The Acid Control Act, 2002 and the Acid Crime Prevention Act, 2002 were passed. These acts mention the punishment in cases of acid attack and attempts to restrict the import, export and sale of acids. Some important features of these acts are:
- Creation of Acid Attack Control Council Fund;
- Creation of rehabilitation centers for acid attack victims;
- Adequate treatment of victims;
- Providing legal aid to the victims.
Laws made in Cambodia
Cambodia also passed the Cambodian Law on Regulating Acid in 2011. This law tries to criminalize acid attack violence and tries to control and regulate the use of concentrated acid. This Act provides an exhaustive definition of concentrated acid so as to include within it even those items that have a probability of being added in the list of concentrated acids in the future. For sale, distribution and all other purposes of usage of acid, Cambodia requires appropriate sanction from the ministry.
The numbers released by the National Crime Bureau (NCB) show that 523 cases of acid attacks were reported in India which were at a high from 2017 when 442 cases were registered and 2016 when 407 cases were registered.
In 2017 only 9.9 percent of the cases were disposed of. However, in 2018 it reduced to 6.11%. This reflects that the system is unable to provide swift justice in these matters and there is a need to pace up. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal topped the list of reporting the most number of acid attacks in between 2016-2018.
However, it must be borne in mind that these are not the only cases that are filed in a year. There are many other incidents that take place however there are settled outside the court. Certain external factors that go unnoticed also play a role in the registering of the cases in the court like class, caste, power, etc.
Role of NGOs in combating acid attack
NGOs provide a ray of hope to the victims. They try to balance their unsettled life after the attack. They help in uniting the victims from different parts of the country so that they don’t feel alone in their fight. Living together with each other would provide every one of them with additional support. NGO’s try to explore employment opportunities for the victims. When the government is not able to do much NGOs come forward and try to raise funds for the treatment and medication of the victims. They organize seminars where the victims can participate and work towards developing skills.
Many countries possess a high level of violence against women. Violence is rooted in gender-based discrimination. Social norms and gender stereotypes perpetuate that violence. So the best way to stop acid attacks (which is also a result of violence against women) is to try preventing it first by addressing what is the root cause for it. Education is crucial for ending all kinds of violence against women. Prevention should start early in life, by educating and working with young boys and girls promoting respectful relationships and gender equality.
Research helps to gain an understanding of the cause and effects of acid attacks. It would be helpful in recognizing feasible and practical policy solutions. Quality research enables to establish consensus for change, especially helps in persuading policymakers to change policies, laws.
Ensuring the enforcement of the rights of the victim
The central and state government’s role is not limited to providing monetary compensation to the victim. Their work also includes helping victims restore in society. They have to work to ensure certain rights are granted to these victims. Some of those rights are:
- Right to be fair treatment;
- Right to attend and be present at criminal proceedings;
- Right to be shielded from intimidation and harassment;
- Right to appeal for victim compensation;
- Right to a speedy trial;
- Right to privacy;
- Right to be heard;
- Right to restitution from criminal offender;
- Right to be informed;
- Right to compensation.
Though these days acid attacks are getting attention but much more needs to be done to prevent this dreadful crime. In the previous years, we have seen many bills being passed, many laws being amended but we know it is not enough. There is a serious need to regulate the sale of acid. Unregulated sale of acid is the major reason in the increasing number of these crimes. Deepika Padukone starred film Chappak also tries to bring light to this issue.
We, as a society should understand the plight of the victims of acid attack. Those victims already feel hopeless. But we must not let them think so. We should treat them as our equals. They deserve respect and dignity like any other human beings. Apart from society, law should ensure that justice is served and the victims get adequate compensation.
Students of Lawsikho courses regularly produce writing assignments and work on practical exercises as a part of their coursework and develop themselves in real-life practical skill.