Order fulfilment Agreement

This article has been written by Prashanthi Byrapaka pursuing a Remote freelancing and profile building program from Skill Arbitrage.

This article has been edited and published by Shashwat Kaushik.


Technology these days has become the most important thing in our day to day lives. Though humans are the reason for the development of technology, now the world is running behind it. It has greatly influenced how people work, live and communicate. Modern technologies are broadly classified into different categories like Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Information technology, telecommunications, biotechnology, robotics, nanotechnology, etc. In earlier days, it was very difficult to communicate and gather information. Now these technologies have brought a vast change in our day to day lives and made much work easier. These technologies can bring a very quick solution to a very complex problem within no time. The era of writing letters to loved ones to communicate has moved to communicating on mobile phones. Previously, we used GPRS enabled phones and now technology has updated from 2G to 5G without any issues with internet connectivity, which enables technologies like augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and the Internet of Things (IoT). Nowadays, we also find advancements in robotics. They are used for surgical purposes, assisting elderly people, etc. In some countries, we also find robots serving food in hotels. Recently, a 62 year old patient in Haryana was treated using artificial intelligence technology to remove severe blood clots. 

Download Now

Technology and its advantages

Technology has the potential to advance the cause of human rights. Forensic technology, for example, can be used to reconstruct crime scenes and hold criminals accountable, while satellite data can be used to track the movement of internally displaced persons. Artificial intelligence can also help with picture identification to collect evidence on human rights violations. However, despite all the ways that new technologies are advancing the cause of human rights, they also have the potential to prevent work in these areas. The development of technical advances must take ethical and policy-oriented ramifications into account, ranging from authoritarian nations using surveillance tools to monitor political dissidents to the phenomenon of “deep fakes” undermining democratic public space.

Technology and its disadvantages

Although these technological advancements are ahead of us, there are drawbacks as well, including privacy concerns, ethical dilemmas, and employment effects. A continuous and significant social undertaking is finding a balance between addressing the possible negative effects of technology and utilising it for good.

Whenever we are using some applications, we always give our personal information, which must be protected by privacy, but these days, our complete data is being hacked. Recently, there was a complaint raised by a 21 year old man stating that his private video was going viral. Later, it was known that the video was leaked by the CCTV camera that had been installed in the bedroom. Hackers are even using artificial intelligence to hack the CCTV cameras. As we have seen a rapid change in technology from 2G to 5G, the 5G technology produces high radiation, which may result in health issues. People nowadays are facing many health problems, and they are also losing their thinking abilities as they are completely dependent on technology for information and decision making. Along with this, social isolation is also one of the drawbacks, as people tend to interact online rather than with face-to-face communication, which makes them isolate themselves from the real world.

And now that technology is replacing humans, there are chances of people losing their jobs. This will lead to a lot of unemployment issues.

Technology and human rights in armed conflicts

Technology, including the internet, has become a double-edged sword in the dynamic world of armed conflicts, and it is essential for upholding rights and holding influential people accountable together, bringing previously unheard-of technological advances and presenting severe issues and threats to human rights. The relationship between the core values of human rights and state of the art technologies is growing as countries fight each other. There is a very complex relationship between human rights and technology, as it includes using drones and artificial intelligence in wars. Using drones and robotics to attack people in war is like violating international humanitarian laws, as it will put civilian lives at risk. Facial recognition and mass surveillance are used to identify the individual for persecution. Cyberattacks are done to stop communication between people and get sensitive information regarding people from the state database. And nowadays, social media platforms are also misused to spread false information, which leads to many conflicts. Out of all these, technology can also be used to protect humans in warfare, as it helps higher officials easily identify the locations of incidents with early detection of apt locations. Remote sensing technologies can be used to detect changes in land use, displacement patterns, and other indicators of human rights violations. Satellite imagery is used in real-time monitoring of conflict zones Augmented reality and virtual reality are used to create awareness of the impact of armed conflicts on individuals, and they can be used to design the consequences at the earliest and train humanitarian workers and peacekeepers. The databases must be secured efficiently using High standard encryption algorithms to maintain the privacy of the data. One of the most pressing concerns is the use of autonomous weapons systems, commonly known as “killer robots.” These technologies, capable of selecting and engaging targets without human intervention, raise serious questions about accountability, responsibility, and the potential for unintended harm to civilians. The development and deployment of autonomous weapons systems require careful consideration of ethical principles and human rights standards to ensure their responsible use.

Another critical issue is the protection of civilians in armed conflict. Technology offers various opportunities to enhance the safety and well-being of civilians. Early warning systems, real-time monitoring, and communication platforms can provide vital information and support to vulnerable populations. Humanitarian organisations and international bodies increasingly rely on technology to deliver aid, track human rights violations, and advocate for the protection of civilians.

However, technology can also be used for surveillance, censorship, and the suppression of dissent. In conflict zones, governments and non-state armed groups may employ digital tools to monitor and control populations, limit access to information, and stifle freedom of expression. The misuse of technology for surveillance and repression poses a significant threat to human rights, undermining democratic principles and fundamental freedoms.

Addressing the intersection of technology and human rights in armed conflict requires a multifaceted approach. International law, including the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, provides a legal framework for the protection of civilians and the conduct of hostilities. However, there is an urgent need for specific regulations and guidelines to address emerging technologies and their potential impact on human rights.

Geneva Convention 1949

To uphold humanitarian standards in the midst of hostilities, international treaties have established Geneva Conventions to govern the conduct of armed conflicts and ensure the safety of people who are not a part of hostilities. This was first adopted in 1864 and treated the sick and wounded soldiers in the war. Its fundamental principles are the protection of medical staff and facilities, the prohibition of torture, cruel treatment, and arbitrary deprivation of life.

There are four main Geneva Conventions, which are dedicated to persons affected by armed conflicts and in addition to that, there are three protocols.

The First Geneva Convention

The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.

The key rules here are:

  • Care for the wounded and sick: According to this convention, medical treatment must be given to the wounded and sick, and medical personnel have to be protected and allowed to do their jobs.
  • Protection for the medical team: The medical team must be treated as neutral and should not be harmed. They should be provided with a safe place.
  • Identification and protection: The people treating the sick and wounded are to be identified with a special Red Cross emblem, which implies that they should not be targeted in the conflicts.

The Second Geneva Convention

The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of the Armed Forces at Sea of August 12, 1949.

The key rules here are:

  • Protection at sea: It states that military personnel who are wounded, sick or whose ship is wrecked need to be taken care of and moved to a safer place.
  • Protection for medical team: The medical team must be treated as neutral and should not be harmed not only on land but also at sea. The medical ships should not be attacked.
  • Identification and protection: As with the First Geneva Convention, the Second Geneva Convention also states that a special Red Cross emblem has to be given to the medical team and has to be protected.

The Third Geneva Convention

The Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949,

The key rules here are:

  • Humane treatment: This states that the prisoners of war are not to be treated cruelly and should be provided with all the basic necessities.
  • Protection of personal belongings: Their personal belongings, like religious items and identity cards, are to be respected and provided security.
  • Communication with outsiders: The prisoners are allowed to send and receive letters and packages from their families.

The Fourth Geneva Convention

The Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949.

The key rules here are:

  • Protection of homes and buildings: Here, the homes and schools of civilians are not to be damaged or targeted.
  • Humanitarian treatment: Even if civilians are found in the middle of the conflicts, they are to be treated on humanitarian grounds, and they should be provided with food, water and medical care if needed.
  • Prohibition of forced movement: Until and unless for safety purposes, civilians are not forced to be moved out of their places or homes.
  • Respect for families: The families should be respected and should try to reunite if they are separated.

Protocol I (102 Articles) (1977) Protocol additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. Protocol I expands protection for the civilian population as well as military and civilian medical workers in international armed conflicts.

Protocol II, adopted in 1977, is an additional protocol to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. It specifically addresses the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts, which are conflicts taking place within the borders of a single state.

The 28 articles of Protocol II provide detailed rules and protections for individuals and groups affected by non-international armed conflicts. These rules include:

  • Protection of civilians: Protocol II prohibits the targeting of civilians and civilian objects during non-international armed conflicts. It also prohibits the use of certain weapons and tactics that are likely to cause indiscriminate or excessive harm to civilians.
  • Protection of medical personnel and facilities: Protocol II protects medical personnel and facilities from attack or interference during non-international armed conflicts. This protection extends to medical personnel of all parties to the conflict, including government forces, opposition groups, and humanitarian organisations.
  • Protection of cultural property: Protocol II prohibits the destruction or damage of cultural property during non-international armed conflicts. This protection extends to monuments, museums, libraries, and other cultural sites.
  • Prohibition of certain weapons and tactics: Protocol II prohibits the use of certain weapons and tactics that are considered to be inhumane or excessively injurious. These weapons and tactics include chemical and biological weapons, cluster munitions, and landmines.
  • Treatment of captured persons: Protocol II provides for the humane treatment of captured persons during non-international armed conflicts. This includes protection from torture, ill-treatment, and summary execution.

Protocol II is a landmark agreement that provides important protections for victims of non-international armed conflicts. It has been ratified by over 160 countries, and it has played a significant role in improving the treatment of civilians and other vulnerable groups during these conflicts.

Protocol III (2005) Protocol additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and Relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. The protocol was developed in response to the emergence of armed conflicts in which neither the Red Cross nor the Red Crescent emblem were universally accepted. This was the case in the Iran-Iraq War, where the Red Cross emblem was associated with Christian nations and the Red Crescent emblem with Muslim nations. As a result, many wounded and sick people were left without protection.

The red crystal emblem was designed to be a neutral and universally acceptable symbol of medical protection. It is a red equilateral diamond with a white background. The protocol allows the Red Crystal emblem to be used by states and non-state armed groups as a distinctive emblem for medical services.

The protocol also includes provisions on the use of the red crystal emblem. It prohibits the use of the emblem for any purpose other than medical protection. It also prohibits the misuse of the emblem, such as using it to attack or intimidate people.

The protocol has been signed by over 100 states and is widely accepted as a valuable tool for protecting medical services in armed conflicts. It has been used in a number of conflicts, including the war in Syria and the conflict in Yemen.


Technology is both useful and harmful in many ways but using it in a good way will surely bring forth the best results in advancement. Using some protective measures and standard privacy encryption techniques may be helpful in order to protect the data from misuse, which in turn helps to maintain the set of rules specified by international humanitarian law. Technology can be used best in armed conflicts that do not affect human rights.



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here