This article is written by Nishka Kamath, a student at Nalanda Law College, University of Mumbai. This article focuses on the caste discrimination, harassment, ill-treatment faced by individuals of the lower class in the UK, along with its impact and solutions. 


A good man cannot be a master and a master cannot be a good man. The same applies to the relationship between high caste and low caste” – B. R. Ambedkar 

Indeed, any man who discriminates between individuals on the basis of their castes cannot ever be a good man. Despite all the efforts and social reforms by some renowned leaders including Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and organizations like ACDA (Anti Caste Discrimination Alliance), IDSN (the International Dalit Solidarity Network) the problem of caste still exists in India as well as in a country like the United Kingdom.

Caste has its existence in Britain but does caste discrimination and harassment exist there?

Let us find out. 

Ambedkar in Gray’s Inn

On 30th June 2021, a room in London’s Gray Inn was allocated to Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. He is the first person of Indian origin and the very second jurist in the world to have a room exclusively allocated to him at the Gray’s Inn. Dr. Ambedkar encouraged the Buddhist movement in India and is globally known as an exceptional academic, author, politician, socio-political reformist, economist, and jurist. Being the chief architect of the Constitution of India, he eradicated the practice of untouchability and secured social and fundamental legal rights and equality for its citizens. He spent two periods of study at Gray’s Inn  (one was from October 1916 to July 1917 and the second was when he came back to London in 1920) while he studied at the London School of Economics and Political Science

The Gray’s Inn which is over 600 years old, is one of London’s four Inns of Courts and is an institution unique to Britain. These Inns are professional associations or communities of London’s lawyers and barristers. Here, they receive formal academic sessions, training lessons, workshops, and other such activities that provide guidance and mentorship in the legal field. Gray’s Inn has a list of distinguished jurists, judges, and lawyers, including Francis Bacon, Baron Slynn, Lord Bingham of Cornhill, and other such eminent members. Also, this Inn previously had an allocated room to England’s first woman Queen Council and Judge- Rose Heilbron.

The event of unveiling a room dedicated especially to Dr. Ambedkar was held on 30th June 2021 and consisted of 25 members including Santosh Das, and great-grandson of Dr. Ambedkar- Sujat Ambedkar who is also an alumnus of Gray’s Inn and the Artist who painted the portrait David Newens, amongst others.

This historical advancement has its roots in the discussions carried on by an ex-civil servant, human rights and equality activist Santosh Das MBE, President of the Federation of Ambedkarite and Buddhist Organisations (FABO) in the UK, who has been relentlessly campaigning against caste-based discrimination and is also one of the major persons to put out a proposal to the Indian Government to make Ambedkar house in London a memorial.

Caste-based discrimination in the UK

Dr. Ambedkar once said, “We must break the chains, once and forever”, and yet, even in the 21st century, especially in a country like the UK, where a room was dedicated to him there is caste discrimination shackled. It should be considered that the British discrimination legislation does not deal with any discrimination or harassment related to caste explicitly, although, with the Equality Act 2010, caste can be regarded as a characteristic of a race that will act as a defence against the unequal treatment and harassment at workplace, academics and in commodities and services.

In two articles, one from ThePrint, India and the other from BBC, both authored by Sanjoy Chakravorty, they have provided concrete arguments that the Britishers invented the system of caste in India. From these articles, it was inferred that the British colonists were the leading ones to write the first and defining draft of Indian history. So, there is a possibility that the practice of caste-based discrimination in the UK must have been carried on from here.  

Caste discrimination may occur anywhere, anytime to an individual of any religion or caste be it upward or downward. The major effects of alleged caste discrimination include depression, losing self-esteem, isolation from social life, etc. These effects do not just affect an individual, but also society. One of the consequences of caste discrimination and harassment is public violence. Another consequence includes community cohesion. Its effects depend on what is recognized as a community. Thus, an interesting question arises now, which caste is viewed as a community here? all Asians? all Hindus? all Sikhs? all Gujaratis? subsets by religion? Whether the community includes all castes presently may depend on the vicinity and this would be perceived differently by different groups. Some individuals see caste as empowering them with an identity and support networks and so reinforcing community. On the other hand, some individuals consider it to be a dividing factor for people and communities and develop distrust amongst individuals.

Caste and its impact on the British population affected by this system 

The word ‘caste’ is utilized in recognizing various concepts, primarily, “varna” which is the religious caste system of Hindus, “jati” which is a job-related caste system, and “biraderi” which is often referred to as a clan system. There are several jati’s and a person’s jati (or caste) is determined by that of their forefathers (like that of sweeper, leather-worker, cobbler, etc). 

The caste system is associated with a hierarchy comprising four categories. They are as follows:

  1. The Brahmins (priests and teachers) being on top,
  2. The Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers) following them,
  3. The Vaishyas (farmers, merchants, and traders) and 
  4. The Shudras (labourers) at the end.
  5. In addition, there is a 5th group of “outcast” people. These people are the ones who do all the unsanitary work and are not even included in the four-fold hierarchy. 

The “outcasts” include individuals belonging to the Dalit region. They are regarded to be “impure” and kind of “untouchables” because of their history of subordination, financial dependence, and slavery. Although the Dalits do not follow the culture-specific menial occupation traditionally linked to their caste status in the UK, the “untouchable mentality” persists in the form of direct and indirect discrimination. Some groups referred to as lower castes are- Ravidassia, Valmiki, Ramdasis, and Ambedkarite Buddhists. Even Christians having their roots in the subcontinent of India are presumably referred to as lower castes. It is not surprising that this form of discrimination is deeply ingrained in the Diaspora communities in the UK as well. The 4-5% of the population of Britain comprises people who have caste awareness having their roots in the Indian subcontinent. 

In Britain, the nature of caste discrimination and harassment has varying views. While some individuals are of the view that it does have its existence and has an exceedingly devastating effect, whereas others believe that it has its limitations to an individual’s social relations like that of a marriage and then there are others who are of the view that it does not have any existence at all. 

The scenario/background of caste discrimination and harassment

Discrimination of any sort is still discrimination. There is no difference in caste discrimination and any other forms of discrimination, whether it is related to incapacity to something or being a handicap, or having a different sexual preference or ethnicity, it is discrimination. Such laws are already outlawed in Britain. 

In 2006, Director of the Dalit Solidarity Network (DSN-UK), a network of a chain of about 100 people, Dalit community organizations, faith bodies, as well as, international NGOs including Anti Slavery International and one of their many members including the FABO UK, published a report termed ‘No Escape: Caste Discrimination in the UK’. It was a report based on the presence and the effect of caste discrimination in the UK. It is noteworthy that this was the foremost study to address the issue of caste discrimination in the UK and to create an outline for understanding the complex issues faced by the people belonging to the lower castes which set a base for dealing with caste-based discrimination. The study concluded that the Dalits face unjust treatment in the field of employment, healthcare, education, and politics, and found out caste-based discrimination in accessing the Hindu temples.

As per another 2010 study which was carried out with the goal of discerning whether there was an existence of discrimination and harassment with regards to the characteristics covered by the Equality Act 2010 found that discrimination and harassment do exist, especially in those fields which had its relation to that of a workplace and provision of services in Britain. The other fields where a trace of discrimination and harassment was found were as follows:

  1. Education (bullying caused by one pupil against another),
  2. Voluntary work (dismissal),
  3. Devotion and sect and public conduct (harassment at public places). 

The study also stated that caste discrimination and harassment could have a negative impact on the victims.  

Existing reaction to so-called caste discrimination and harassment

With the 2010 study, four reactions to the supposed difference and harassment were recognized, they are as follows:

  1. Taking the case to the people in power or an authorized body (the school, the employer, the help provider, the police);
  2. Speaking to the individuals or their parents for carrying out such an immoral act;
  3. Doing nothing;
  4. Taking the law into one’s own hands. 

Each individual encountered a different experience while approaching the authorities for the unjust treatment. While a few cases had positive results, wherein the discrimination or harassment came to an end, whereas in most of the cases, due to the people in authority being non-Asians they were unaware of the caste, and this lead to a negative impact. The aggrieved people had to explain the details to the authorities but still were not certain whether they recognized the issue or not. Also, some people because of the unwillingness to talk about their caste were hesitant to mention their caste to the authorities. Thus, this issue was not dealt with properly and chances of it occurring back were high. 

Moreover, speaking to the individual or his parents was an approach that did not seem to have any effect or change, and it was assumed that it might intensify the problem if not reduce it. 

Other individuals did not do anything due to the following reasons: 

  1. The authorities and the perpetrators belonged to the same caste,
  2. Some individuals were hesitant to explain their caste to non-Asians,
  3. Some were of the view that the authorities might not perceive the intended meaning or have the understanding to address this issue and then the individual may be seen as a person causing trouble,
  4. Discomfort and  reluctance in disclosing caste,
  5. No faith that any effective step will be taken,
  6. An ideology that approaching the authorities might aggravate the issue leading to retribution. 

This meant that some individuals took law into their own hands, which resulted in causing violence. 

Is caste-based discrimination dying out

The issue of whether caste-based discrimination is still alive or not was raised in the December 2010 study by Hilary Metcalf and Heather Kolfe. There were contradictory views about this matter from the anti- and pro-caste legislation organizations. As per the anti-caste legislations prevailing in the country, caste is dying out in the UK (if not already dead) and there is no requirement for the implementation of any law based on caste. Whereas, the pro-caste legislation organizations argued that caste-based discrimination still prevails and will remain strong, and thus, a law must be implemented. 

Reports submitted to the Government by several organizations have pointed out the consequences of caste-based discrimination in the UK. They believe that the caste system still prevails and persists to the extent that it exerts unfair influences in the daily lives of individuals. There is no concrete proof of the organizations’ views. A surge in inter-caste marriage was presented as a proof for diminution in caste discrimination, whereas, other organizations pointed out that the persistence of the caste is the criterion for marriage selection (including its existence on the matrimonial websites). 

In order to determine the status of caste-based discrimination in the UK, there is a need for extensive research, only then, can one reach a conclusion on this issue.

UK’s caste biased temples

B. R. Ambedkar once said one cannot build anything based on caste. One cannot build a “nation” or “morality” with caste. Anything that is built on the basis of caste will “crack” and never be “whole”. Indeed, nothing can be built on the basis of caste, and yet, there are temples built in the name of castes and discrimination happening based on caste.

According to pro-legislation organizations, many temples and Gurdwaras are caste-based and were established in the early 1960s because individuals belonging to the lower castes were unwelcomed in the existing places of worship. According to the anti-legislation organizations and others, some areas do not have caste-based temples and Gurudwaras. So, this differs across the country.  Also, as per the DSN 2006 report, caste segregation was not the norm in maximum parts of India. However, this does not mean that a person is excluded from any temple or Gurudwaras. It was affirmed by the Hindu anti-caste legislation organization that Hindu Temples were not restricted to any caste. Thus, it was open to all individuals, irrespective of their caste. 

The empowered Hindus and Sikhs in the UK believe that there is no caste consciousness in this country and it would be strange to have a law introduced for it. These views can be said to have an influence by the holy places like gurdwaras and temples in the UK that are constrained to serving specific castes only.

One of the many indicators of caste includes gurudwara or temple of worship as many in Britain are based on the caste. The advancement of caste-separate Gurudwaras was an outcome of Jatts’ domination. They were amongst the largest groups of Sikhs. The people in the Gurudwara would choose a representative of their caste for roles in the Gurudwara, thus, the Jatts (due to their massive groups) were in the place of dominance. This resulted in the setting up of a Gurudwara by the other castes.

The problems arising due to caste-separate temples were as follows:

  1. Some individuals were prevented from performing puja on the basis of their caste.
  2. Some individuals were eliminated from becoming Hindu priests considering the caste they belonged to.
  3. Other individuals faced a lot of humiliation because of their caste. For instance, as per the ACDA (Anti Caste Discrimination Alliance) organization, an individual was ill-treated in the new Sikh Singh Sabha temple in Southall while he went to bow down (Matha tekh) in front of the Guru Granth Sahba. As the person touched one of the glasses, it was instantly put in for washing as his headscarf (ramaal) on the head said Guru Ravidaas. 

Another instance where caste-based discrimination occurred was when a lady in Gurudwara denied taking Kara Prasad (a flour-based sweet that has to be received with cupped hands) from a Granthi, who is a Sikh temple worker. Upon facing such embarrassment, the Granthi made an official complaint to the Executive Committee of the Gurdwara and a meeting was held where the woman was asked to explain her behaviour. The woman, even then, disrespected the Granthi in front of the Committee but no action was taken against her.

The identification between certain religions and the lower castes means that certain places of worship are said to have their relationship with the lowest castes. Places of worship like Guru Ravidass Temples, Bhagwan Valmiki Temples, and Buddha Vihar are said to belong to individuals of lower caste. Whereas, several Hindu Temples, Ramgarhia Temples, and Gurudwaras of Sikh people have been considered to have a linkage with that of higher caste. 

Organizations formed to eradicate the practice of caste-based discrimination in the UK

There are various organizations formed for removing the practice of caste discrimination in the United Kingdom. Some of the major ones are as follows:

Anti-caste Discrimination Alliance (ACDA)

The Anti-Caste Discrimination Alliance (ACDA) which was established in 2008, is an independent, non-profit making voluntary organization, with its association with like-minded organizations having common aims and identical values. ACDA’s work is carried on by a dedicated team of determined volunteers. It was established to cultivate an environment that respects and values individuals in a society, regardless of their skin colour, caste, creed, gender, age, background, sexual orientation, race, or any other precepts presently included in the Equality legislation in the UK.  

The specific goals and objectives of ACDA set out in its Constitution are as follows:

  • To examine and stand up against the caste discrimination practices of policies that have led to to the creation of caste prejudice in the UK and abroad;
  • To raise awareness about caste discrimination and its causes;
  • To take measures in uniting all the interested people to go against caste discrimination, including, amongst others, the provision of relevant education to the needy people;
  • To develop strategies and assist support groups to eliminate caste discrimination in the UK and elsewhere, and work with them to accomplish common goals concerning the elimination of caste discrimination;
  • To give moral relief to the victims of caste discrimination through education;
  • To persuade stakeholders, opinion formers, and influencers in keeping with these objectives.

In 2009, the ACDA set out a pivotal report called Hidden Apartheid-Voice of the Community- Caste and Caste Discrimination in the UK. It was based on a study conducted between August and October 2009 to ascertain how people know that the caste system exists in the UK and its impact upon those who have faced it. This report was released during the passage of the Single Equality Bill in the UK. It was successful in securing a clause on Caste in Section 9 (5)(a) of the Equality Act. 

The academic report stated that caste discrimination is an under-researched area. Based on this survey, an estimated one lakh individuals of the population may be a victim of caste discrimination. This study has also submitted various suggestions for the government, educational system, provision of goods and services to provide measures against the practice of caste-based discrimination.

ACDA has contributed a lot to the development of the lower castes and to avoid discrimination and harassment based on caste. Since 2009, it has led several meetings in the Parliament, public protests, and media campaigns and has corresponded joint statements to the UK Government on the requirement of prohibiting caste-based discrimination in the UK on behalf of the Dalit organizations. In November 2013, at the invitation of the ACDA, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights– Ms Navi Pillay attended a meeting, related to the caste-based discrimination at the House of Lords which was chaired by Lord Eric Avebury. Furthermore, the ACDA along with the Ravidassia community in 2021, responded to a London based man who posted a caste-related hatred and defamation video on his TikTok account. 

Thus, ACDA has played a pivotal role in contributing to the rights of the individuals of lower castes and taking measures to abolish caste-based discrimination.

The International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN) 

Established in 2000 and officially registered as an organization in 2003, the International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN) was formed to defend the human rights of Dalits and to promote awareness of issues relating to Dalits, domestically and internationally. It is a network composed of international human rights organizations, development agencies, national Dalit solidarity networks from Europe, and the national platform of countries affected by caste-based discrimination. 

This organization has caused a major impact on addressing the issue of caste discrimination as an important human right internationally. By cooperation with the UN, the EU (that constitute an important part of IDSN’s activities), and other multilateral organizations, IDSN has successfully lobbied for a plan to address “untouchability” and other human rights violations against Dalits and similar communities who suffer discrimination due to work and ancestry. 

IDSN relies on the assistance provided by its members and associates.  This network generates essential inputs in form of documents, strategic interventions, and lobbying operations and supports logging at the national level. The interactions between the members boost the dynamics of the network. 

Dalit Solidarity Network UK (DSN-UK) 

Dalit Solidarity Network (DSK-UK), established in 1998, and formally registered as an authorized charity in 2003, is a British charity network that unites individuals and organizations concerned about the ongoing human rights violations due to caste discrimination. It continues to proposer into an effective campaigning and advocacy organization that is dedicated to solving the problem of caste discrimination in the UK and becoming an active participant in the global movement. Its members consist of individuals, development agencies, trade unions, journalists, academics, and other human rights organizations that join hands with them to work closely on matters of caste discrimination. DSN-UK is one of the members of IDSN. 

It is noteworthy that, the DSN-UK and IDSN submitted a report in August 2011 on the occasion of the review of the United Kingdom (UK) by the UN Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) which is an organization set up for the promotion and protection of human rights and freedoms) at its 79th session. It pays special attention to the problem of caste discrimination in the UK. This issue was addressed by the Committee in 2003 in the concluding observations and was also briefly mentioned by the UK Government in its 2010 report. This report states that the UK Government should take immediate steps to approve to pass on the proposed amendment to prohibit caste discrimination in the UK Equality Bill 2010. Additionally, DSN-UK and IDSN, in accordance with CERD General Recommendation 29 (CERD GR 29), have asked the government to take specific measures to eliminate this form of discrimination, including the adoption of a national strategy, carrying out further research, and promoting public awareness of the issue.

In the 79th session in August 2011, DSN-UK with the support of various Dalit organizations including the IDSN made recommendations to CERD against caste discrimination carried out in the UK. 

Case law in practice

Currently, the law does not offer an adequate production to all the victims of caste-based discrimination in the UK, for the reason that there is no guarantee that the courts will always interpret the Equality Act 2010 as applicable to castes. So far, there has been only a single case that has explicitly mentioned caste- Tirkey vs Chandok, 2015.

Main issue

In this case, the main question was “Whether caste can be covered by the existing definition of race discrimination or not?” The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) affirmed the above question in its judgment. The facts of the case are as follows: 

Facts of the case

Ms Tirkey was a domestic worker for Mr and Mrs Chandok. She was born in India and her inherited caste was that of Adivasi, which is regarded as “servant caste” or “lower caste” in Indian society. Ms Turkey was appointed by the Respondents in India in 2008 for domestic work in the UK. She resigned in November 2012 due to fundamental breaches of her contract. She used to work 18 hours a day and 7 days a week with a less than minimum wage amount. The account in which the payments were made was not accessible by the Claimant and the money was used by the Respondents for their personal purposes instead. She did not have a bed and was given a foam mattress to sleep on the floor in various bedrooms in the house. Also, the Respondent’s passport and documentation were kept away from her. Moreover, she was forbidden to carry her Bible to the UK and due to her work schedule, she was unable to attend the Church as per her wishes. To add to her misery, the Claimant was denied access to education by the Respondents. 

Claims and arguments 

Ms Tirkey made a number of claims with regards to her period of employment by the respondents. This claim is included unfair dismissal, unlawful deduction of wages, and discrimination on the basis of race and religion. In her complaint, she claimed that she was subjected to less favourable treatment because of her caste. These facts were heavily disputed by the Respondents but the Tribunal found them to be apt. The Respondents tried to ward off the claim by an argument stating that caste does not fall within the definition of ‘race’ in the Equality Act 2010.

Observation and Judgment by the Employment Tribunal

The Employment Judge- Stigworth stated that the protected racial characteristics included ethnic origin and were sufficient to cover castes. This is the second time the case has been produced before the Employment Tribunal. The Respondents appealed in this regard, but the EAT upheld the previous decision, confirming that “caste”, in as much as it is an aspect of “ethnic origin”, could fall within the ambit of the Equality Act 2010. EAT did not recognize “caste” as an independent basis for discrimination, but rather recognized that all aspects of the category of “caste” overlap with the definition of “ethnic origin”. Therefore, discrimination that raised ” caste considerations” can fall within the ambit of “ethnic or national origin” in Section 9 (1) (c)  of the Equality Act 2010. 

The Employment Tribunal instructed that the Claimant be paid a sum amount of £183,773.53 by the Respondents for all the illegal deductions from her wages. 

Therefore, with this case, it was held by EAT that even though caste is not explicitly mentioned in the Equality Act 2010, it does come under the scope of ‘ethnic or national origins’ considering that it has a wider scope. So, the ill-treatment done to the Indian domestic worker could amount to racial discrimination.

Insistence on the introduction of ‘caste’ as a protected factor under the Equality Act 

Many campaigns to publicize the experiences of caste-based discrimination and for the inclusion of ‘caste’ as a protected characteristic were organized by several dedicated organizations like DSN-UK, IDSN, ACDA, FABO UK, and other such organizations. Despite these campaigns, caste-based discrimination is not included in the anti-discrimination provisions. The term ‘caste’ is not explicitly recognized as a ground for discrimination anywhere. Caste discrimination is essentially no different from other aspects of discrimination, for example with regards to disability, sexual orientation, gender, or race, which is already banned in the UK. This is the reason why these organizations want caste also to be protected under the Equality Act 2010. 

There have been different proposals on how to include caste in UK law. One of them was to add caste as an independently protected characteristic to the 9 (stated above) already “protected characteristics”. The second proposal was to add caste to the definition of protected racial characteristics in the presently proposed Equality Law constituting skin colour, nationality, and ethnic or national origin.  

In 2018, the British Government came to a decision that there is no need to legislate caste-based discrimination law, but instead, depending upon the existing case law (Tirkey v. Chandok-discussed above) in courts. The British Government wants to abolish the 2010 caste law which is based on flawed consultation. The notion is that the principle with regards to the decision regarding the caste system in Tirkey v. Chandok will suffice. However, this case should be overturned.

Why “caste” cannot be incorporated in the concept of ethnic origin

Dalits and other castes have different ethnic identities, including different dialects, religions, and cultures. There is discrimination within and between ethnic groups and religions. Moreover, “ethnic origin” can have various interpretations, for instance, as per the UK Equality law, Sikhs are considered to be an ethnic group, whereas Muslims, Christians, Jains, and Hindus are not. If there was the inclusion of “caste” in the Equality law, a lot of doubts and confusion would be eliminated.


Caste-based discrimination is one of the major unaddressed issues in the UK. So, the following are the recommendations inferred by various organizations with their studies for curbing the issue of caste discrimination:

  1. In the field of Employment
  1. The Government can make provisions for the victims (or potential victims) by providing them legal protection against caste discrimination. 
  2. The DWP, CBI, and TUC can do monitoring in companies to make sure that the companies in the UK do not practice a caste-based discriminatory approach for their workers. 
  3. In the field of Education
  4. Awareness must be raised by the department of education and schools to the organizations and Local Education Authorities (LEDs) for assisting the teachers in schools in understanding caste-based bullying and discrimination. 
  5. In the field of provision of commodities and services

The Medical Association of the UK can review the caste issue within its broader patient equality agenda.

  1. In the place of Worship

The Equality and Human Rights Commission can carry out in-depth academic research on the UK’s caste system, caste mobility, and caste-based discrimination, and its impact on the health and well-being of the people falling prey to such ill-practices. 

  1. In the field of donations and NGOs
  1. There can be an inclusion of caste-sensitive programming where they analyze and address the issues of caste-based discrimination and then support them by implementing developmental projects. 
  2. They can ensure representative staffing and a non-discriminatory approach by implementing policies that have zero tolerance for caste-based discrimination and those that promise equality of opportunity to its employees. 
  3. They can also take steps to make sure that the employees reflect the diversity of the people they are working with. 
  4. They can also support and motivate the national governments to improve the data they found out while conducting researches based on caste discrimination and harassment. 
  5. The Humanitarian assistance providers should work closely with local and community-based organizations to monitor relief efforts for ensuring the inclusion and needs of marginalized groups. 
  6. In the field of Government and legislation
  1. The government can examine, change and implement new policies in a way that there is no discrimination based on caste, gender, or other such stereotypes. Thus, they can enact comprehensive anti-discrimination laws.
  2. They can give priority to training teachers of lower-castes and provide ways to enhance the academic and professional training for children and adults so that they can benefit from them and have a broad range of career opportunities.
  3. They can pay more attention to provide adequate education to those sections of the society that includes adults and children who have not received any formal education. 
  4. The government can also take solid steps to ameliorate the dropout rates and boost the enrollment rates of children of lower-castes or those who are affected by such prejudices by taking effective measures and implementing various policies, for instance, implementing a policy for banning child labour.  
  5. They can also take actions for eliminating caste-based discrimination in schools, including the degrading and stereotypical references in textbooks. 
  6. The government can expand anti-discrimination laws to cover castes as an independently protected characteristic, thus making it the tenth one.
  7. There can also be an expansion in the criminal law to address the issue of caste-based harassment and violence.  


We have no concrete proof of whether caste-based discrimination still prevails or not in the UK but we have clear evidence that it was introduced by the Asian diaspora. The UK government must accept this issue and take measures to solve the problem or it may go beyond control. This also goes against the values of fairness and just treatment that the UK government strongly advocates. For curbing and eradicating this issue, various recommendations made by researchers and academicians in their research papers can be considered. 

Moreover, with the unveiling of Ambedkar’s room in Gray’s Inn, UK, other individuals belonging to the lower class should consider this as an inspiration to make achievements and developments in their respective fields.

Thus, the UK government needs to address the issue of caste discrimination and carry on in-depth research to help individuals who have been a victim of such acts or who might face such treatment. Also, the individuals who have suffered such ill-treatment must not suppress their voice and instead, stand up against such ill-treatment, prejudices, and harassment (if any). Only then will we see major progress in the community of people belonging to marginalized groups.


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