This article is written by Malika Jain. It seeks to provide a comprehensive account of all the relevant information about the significance of English language skills for judiciary exams. It not only shares insights about the frequently asked topics and questions in the judiciary exams but also suggests tips and tricks to master the language. 

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The English language plays a significant role in the judiciary exams. For aspiring candidates wishing to make a career in the judicial services, the importance of knowing the English language cannot be overstated. Judicial services serve as a prolific avenue of employment for aspiring law students; however, almost all the judiciary exams in India test the candidates’ knowledge of and proficiency in the English language. Most of these judiciary exams, like those in Delhi, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, etc., generally have a separate section on the English language. The section on the English language is an extremely valuable and scoring portion of the exam and thus presents a great opportunity for the candidates to easily gain their scores by developing skills in the English language. The significance of the English language is not restricted to mere judiciary exams; command over the same also helps the candidates perform better in their professional lives after selection in the judicial services. 

However, the English language may not be the first or even second language of many judiciary aspirants. It may appear to be a daunting task for them to understand and write English. The candidates, however, need not stress too much for this English language segment in the judiciary exam since, though it might seem difficult, it is not impossible. With sincere efforts made in the right direction, the candidates can excel in this linguistic skill and ace the judiciary exam.

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This article is precisely composed with the objective of assisting and guiding the candidates in their endeavour to master the English language so that they can perform well in their judiciary exams. It covers every topic, including the format and pattern of sections of English language in various judiciary exams, the types of questions asked therein, the challenges faced in attempting such questions, and important tips and tricks to prepare for both the relevant components of the English language exam, viz., reading and writing. It seeks to help the aspirants by providing guidance on the basis of the analysis of the past year question papers of the judiciary exams in various states. It also answers various FAQs that may arise in the mind of an aspirant while preparing for the English language section of the judiciary exams. Therefore, the candidates must not be afraid of the English language skills required in the judiciary exams; rather, they should mould their preparation for the same in the right shape following the tips and techniques discussed in this article.

Importance of english language in judiciary exam

Before we set on to discuss the techniques with which candidates can hone their skills in the English language, we must understand the significance of the English language in the judiciary exams and why the English language has been made a crucial component of the judiciary exams. 

Significance of the english language in judiciary exams

  • The main function of judicial officers is to interpret the law and apply it to the facts and circumstances of the case, and all the laws, rules, regulations, by-laws, etc. are in English; thus, being proficient in the English language is significant for the purposes of judicial services. Hence, until and unless the judicial officers understand the intricacies of the English language, they will not be able to understand and appreciate the language of the law. In fact, they will not be able to discharge the most basic function of their role as judicial officers, i.e., interpretation of law, if they do not know English language well. 
  • Judiciary exams ensure, at the threshold level itself, that the candidates are well-versed in the English language. Interestingly, the Supreme Court and all the High Courts in India generally use English in their daily proceedings. The same is also stipulated under Article 348 of the Constitution of India. Not only do the pleadings and arguments have to be submitted in English, but these courts also pronounce their judgements in English only. Thus, if a candidate gets selected in the judicial services as a judicial officer and later on is promoted to the High Court or even the Supreme Court, it will not only be embarrassing if he or she does not understand the pleadings and arguments presented before them in English, but it will also cause great inconvenience in the functioning of these courts. 
  • The duties of the judicial officer are complex. During the course of their duty, they might have to deal with various types of documents and records, either in the form of evidence or various legal resources. These documents would, most probably, require them to know and understand the English language. Hence, in order to be able to deal with such documentation in English, the aspiring candidates have to possess knowledge of the language.
  • It is widely accepted that legal English is more complex than the ordinary English used in common parlance. The former also involves the use of legal jargon and foreign words that might not be understandable to an ordinary person. Therefore, the judiciary exams test the English language skills of the candidates to ensure that they not only fully comprehend the ordinary English language but can also appreciate the nuances of typical legal English. 

Therefore, the judiciary exams place significant emphasis on the evaluation of the English language skills of the candidates. 

Format of english language paper in the judiciary exams

As stated above, nearly all the judiciary exams in all the states in the country include a separate and dedicated exam on the English language. However, knowledge of the English language is not only necessary for attempting the particular English language paper of the judicial services’ exams, but the same is also indispensable for the candidates in answering the descriptive questions asked in these exams in general. The marks are not only deducted when the candidates mark a wrong answer in the English language section but also when the candidates write essay-type answers in grammatically wrong or incorrect language. 

Similarly, if the candidate opts for taking the judicial services’ interview in English, it is imperative for him or her to be extremely proficient and fluent in speaking and understanding English. Speaking in incorrect or broken English in the interview would not merely result in the deduction  of the candidate’s scores but would also leave a poor impression of him or her on the interviewer. Hence, it can be seen that the judiciary exam mandates the candidates to develop comprehensive expertise in all the spheres of the English language, viz.: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Therefore, the requirement that aspirants to judicial services have exceptional English language skills cannot be underscored enough.

As far as the separate segments of judiciary exams in the English language are concerned, these sections contain a variety of questions, which may include both multiple choice type questions and essay type questions. The evaluation of the English language skills of the candidates can be tested in judiciary exams, both preliminary and mains. The multiple choice type questions, mainly in the preliminary exam, may involve questions like synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms, English grammar, vocabulary, etc. 

On the other hand, the Mains judiciary exam may require the candidates to write descriptive answers to questions involving precis writing, essay writing, reading comprehension, etc. As per the analysis of the past year question papers, sometimes, like in the case of exams for Arunachal Pradesh Judicial Services and Madhya Pradesh Judicial Services, as many as 20-25 questions have been asked on the English language in the preliminary exam. Similarly, most of the states, like the UP Judicial Services, Odisha Judicial Services, etc., have a valuably high scoring section on the English language in the Mains judiciary exams. Generally, the marks attached to these sections range from 100 to 150, which can undoubtedly have a huge impact on the overall score of the candidates. Thus, the candidates must prepare for the English language section considerably, as it has a significant role in the judicial services exams. 

Syllabus and types of questions asked in the English language section of judiciary exams

The candidates must at least prepare the following topics while preparing for the English language sections of judiciary exams in any state whatsoever:

Idioms and phrases 

English idioms and phrases form an important part of the judiciary exams. Several questions are formed out of this topic in the English language section. For instance, the candidates may be asked to identify the meaning of a particular idiom or phrase, or they may be required to complete a particular idiom or phrase by filling in the blank. Some questions may also require the candidates to choose the correct idiom or phrase according to the context provided. For example,in the Delhi Judicial Services Preliminary Exam  2017, a question was asked on the meaning of the phrase “let the cat out of the bag.” Hence, the candidates must practise idioms and phrases well to be able to answer such questions. 


English spelling is a topic that cannot only be asked directly but may also be crucial while answering the questions generally in the judiciary exams. In the preliminary exam, the candidates may be asked to identify the correct spelling of a word, whereas in the rest of the paper, the candidates must ensure that they do not make any spelling mistakes, as the same can ruin the impression thereof.


Vocabulary is an extremely crucial component of any competitive exam, and judiciary exams are not an exception. In fact, vocabulary is a component that, once mastered, is going to help the candidates in all three levels of the judiciary exam: the preliminary exam, the mains exam and the interview. 

Vocabulary includes both English word-meaning and the synonyms and antonyms of English words within its ambit. Questions asking the candidates to specify the antonym or synonym of an English word are not uncommon in the judiciary exams, mainly in the preliminary exams. For example, in Arunachal Pradesh Judicial Services Preliminary exam 2021, questions were asked on the meaning of the words ‘incinerate’, ‘decapitate’, etc. 

Knowledge of vocabulary is also very helpful in precis writing, essay writing, paraphrasing, and translation questions, which are commonly asked in the mains exam. Even in the interview, good command over vocabulary will not only improve the expression of the candidate but will also cast a good impression on the interviewer. This, however, does not mean that the candidate should use flowery and pompous language in the interview.


Although articles may not be directly asked in the judiciary exams, a general knowledge of articles is compulsory for the candidates to write and speak grammatically correct English in the judiciary exams. 

Parts of speech

Parts of speech are probably the first step in learning the English language, and hence, the same cannot be missed by the candidates while preparing for the English language paper in the judiciary exams. In the judiciary exams, the candidates may be required to select the correct word to complete the sentence or directly identify the part of speech. The knowledge of parts of speech comes in handy in solving these types of questions, as the form of a word, i.e., whether it is a noun or an adverb, etc., can extend great hints to the candidates in selecting the right answer. Moreover, even when the candidates are asked to paraphrase a given text, they can rely on parts of speech to alter the structure of the sentences to paraphrase the same.

Subject-verb agreement

We often get confused as to which verb, singular or plural,  should be used with a particular subject, especially when there is more than one subject. This phenomenon of using the correct verb with the subject is known as subject-verb agreement, and this produces a lot of questions in the judiciary exams. For instance, questions like the following are asked quite often in the preliminary exams: Ram and his friends ______ to the temple every day. (go/ goes).

Essay writing

Essay writing evaluates the candidates’ ability to write meaningful, thoughtful, and comprehensive literary pieces in English. For such types of questions, the candidates would be required to write essays on different socio-political or legal topics. For example, in the U.P. Judicial Services Mains Written Examination 2023, essay type questions were asked on topics such as conservation of nature, the importance of social, cultural and gender equality from a global perspective, and Yoga practices and their clinical effects. 

To answer these questions, the candidates must know the nitty-gritties of the English language to be able to express their thoughts on the topic in grammatically correct, coherent, and vocabularily rich English. As much as this is an opportunity for the candidates to showcase their English language skills, which, if presented accurately, can earn great rewards thereto, this may also be a little challenging for the newcomers. Thus, knowledge of the English language together with the practise of answer writing are important for such essay type questions.

Precis writing

In questions about precise writing, the candidates have to summarise the given text while keeping intact all its essential elements. Technically, in precise writing, the summary should be one third of the total worth of the given text. However, the candidates do not actually count the number of words in the given text and the summary; rather, it is a general estimation that they should maintain this ratio. As stated earlier, wide knowledge of English grammar, sentence structures and clauses, vocabulary, parts of speech, etc. can make the activity of precis writing greatly easier for the candidates. 

Short note writing

This is largely like writing short, descriptive answers on a particular topic. Similar to essay writing, the topics of short note writing can also be based on a current relevant socio-economic or political, or legal issue. 

Reading comprehension

Questions related to reading comprehension not only test the candidates’ ability to answer questions on the basis of the given text, but they also require the candidates to have decent reading speed. The text can be sourced from any judgement or from the work of any famous jurist, and the candidates will have to answer the questions after critically analysing and reading the text. Reading speed is required because there may be a couple of questions about reading comprehension or because the given text can be lengthy and complex. Hence, good reading speed will always benefit the candidates by saving time and spending it more where needed. 

Unseen passages

The questions related to unseen passages are more or less the same as those of reading comprehension, with the only difference being that in unseen passages, the passage remains unknown to the candidates. 

Cloze test

In cloze tests, the candidates will be presented with a paragraph with certain blanks to be filled out by the candidates chosing the correct option. Notably, the blanks have to be filled out, taking the context of the paragraph into consideration. In these questions, the candidates will have to read the paragraph, understand its meaning and context, and then select the most appropriate option that could fit therein. This may require the candidates to possess a strong hold on vocabulary and parts of speech. 

Another modified version of the same can be in the form of missing words verbs, wherein certain sentences would be given with blanks and the candidates will have to choose the most suitable verb from the options to complete the sentences. 

Word formation

A peculiar feature of the English language is that many words can be created from a single root word by adding suffixes or prefixes. New meanings can be created by altering the form of the same word. In questions related to word formation, the candidates may be asked to form new words or identify the altered words or the root word of an English word, etc. To be able to answer these questions correctly, the candidates would have to build a strong knowledge base of English vocabulary. 


In translation, the candidates are required to translate into English the sentences given in Hindi or any other regional language, depending on the state of the judicial services exam at hand. Similarly, it also involves the retranslation of sentences given in English into Hindi or any other regional language, again varying according to the state of the judicial services exam.

Para jumbles

Para jumble questions are those where a number of statements are given in an arbitrary or incoherent order that have to be arranged by the candidates in a logical order to form a meaningful paragraph. These types of questions become easy when one is adept at parts of speech, particularly since they can give hints about the order of statements. 

For instance, if a sentence starts with ‘although’ or ‘while’, we understand that, firstly, the same cannot be the last statement, and secondly, that the sentence next to this one will necessarily mean contrary to it. Thus, by picking up cues from the parts of speech, we can get a sense of the order of the statement.

Sentence rearrangement

This is similar to para jumbles. In these types of questions, a number of lines, phrases, or clauses are given in an incoherent order that have to be rearranged by the candidates to make a complete, meaningful, and grammatically correct sentence. Again, the trick of parts of speech discussed for the para jumbles is useful for sentence rearrangement questions as well. 

Verbal ability

Apart from the above, the verbal ability section may involve different types of questions like error spotting or phrase replacement, fill in the blanks, match the columns, etc. 

In questions related to error spotting, the given statements will involve certain English grammar mistakes, and the candidates will have to find out the same. There may be more than one mistake in the sentences. Similarly, in phrase replacement, the highlighted phrase in the question will be incorrect, and the candidates will be required to select the most appropriate option that could replace the incorrect phrase in the question. For example, in the Madhya Pradesh Preliminary Judiciary Exam 2019, the candidates were asked to select one word that could be substituted for the sentence: “that which cannot be corrected” with the options:

  • Unintelligible 
  • Indelible 
  • Illegible 
  • Incorrigible


English grammar, in its totality, is a very significant element of the judiciary exams because where there is a need for English, there is significance for English grammar. This is to cover those portions of English grammar that are not specifically mentioned above. The candidates, after preparing for the above frequently asked topics, must still visit the rest of the English grammar rules to ace the language section of the judiciary exams.

Therefore, the candidates have to devote ample attention to the English language to perform well in the judiciary exams. The above mentioned syllabus and types of questions are merely illustrative and not exhaustive. The candidates, thus, must try to cover all aspects of the English language in their preparation for judiciary exams. Remember that setting an ambitious goal to prepare for all the relevant topics in the English language will enable extensive learning. 

Challenges in attempting the english language section of the judiciary exams

Before the candidates start working on their English language skills for the judiciary exams, it is important that they identify the challenges they may face in attempting the English section or while dealing with the English language in general. This is the best way to start any preparation, as the cognizance of one’s own weaknesses can help a great deal in guiding the preparation in the right direction. This will allow the candidates to emphasise their potentially weak areas and prepare for them. 

The following are the main challenges that candidates may face. In other words, areas that need special attention by the candidates in grappling with the English language in the judiciary exams are:


Vocabulary can seem to be a great hurdle to the candidates in improving their English language skills for the judiciary exams, as they are endless, difficult to memorise, and confusing. So many words in the English language, despite having different meanings, may sound similar or have similar spellings, like hair and hare, pair and pare, here and heir, etc., which can make the process of learning vocabulary greatly tricky. Further, as the candidates progress towards advanced vocabulary, the pronunciation and spelling of the words get complicated. Moreover, for some candidates, basic vocabulary may appear to be advanced, and advanced vocabulary may be extremely difficult due to various reasons, like basic educational qualifications in regional languages. Admittedly, vocabulary is a difficult part; however, with repeated revisions and continuous exposure to good vocabulary, the process of learning it may become comfortable.

Legal phraseology and jargon 

As mentioned above, legal English is a bit different from the English used in common parlance. It involves foreign words, legal jargon, and formal legal phraseology. Not only are these typical legal terms spelled differently, but they also sound differently. Therefore, preparing for the same can be a little challenging and might require special efforts by the candidates.

Critical comprehension 

Comprehension means the capability to understand the text. However, on the other hand, critical comprehension means going far beyond the text and digging deeper into its unwritten implications. It not only means understanding the text but also evaluating its purpose and discovering the meaning implied in it. It is to evaluate the visible text to understand the invisibilities underlying it. To understand the text inside and out, the candidates first need to be well-versed in the English language. Without being able to comprehend the text, they will not be able to critically analyse it. 

Interestingly, legal texts are necessarily comprehended critically. Judicial officers do not just have to read and interpret the text of the law; they also have to understand and enforce the spirit thereof, which is possible only through critical comprehension. Probably this is why in the English papers in judiciary exams, questions like reading comprehension, unseen passages, answer writing, or essay type questions are included so that the candidates can be tested on the basis of their skills of critical comprehension and analysis. 

However, to develop this skill, the candidates must keep practising with a lot of patience. To hone this skill, the candidates need to have knowledge about a wide range of relevant issues so that a particular topic can be viewed from different points of view and interconnections can be highlighted. Thus, this may be a difficult challenge for the candidates in their journey of improving their English language skills for judiciary exams. 

English grammar

English grammar may prove to be challenging for the candidates as it has a plethora of rules that are very difficult to keep in mind all the time. The rules also have various exceptions, which further add to their complexity. Moreover, given the monumental significance attached to English grammar in the judiciary exams, it cannot be taken lightly. Thus, the candidates have to undertake the painstaking task of understanding and memorising the complicated web of rules and exceptions in English grammar.

Coherent English writing

Coherent English writing is the capability of being able to write in a logical manner. For the sake of clarity, it must be mentioned that it is not just writing correct English; it additionally involves the art of writing articulately to express ideas and thoughts accurately. This art of writing coherent English is vital in the judiciary exams, not only to attempt questions related to para jumbles or sentence rearrangement but also while writing essay type answers. It can be a daunting task for candidates without diligent practice.

Speaking fluently

This is a very common challenge faced by aspirants to the judiciary exam. Obviously, this challenge may crop up at the stage of the interview only. When the candidates choose to take up an interview in English, the challenge of speaking English fluently is perhaps the first thing to catch their attention. Broken or language with excessive use of fillers like ‘kind of’, ‘sort of’, ‘like’, ‘you know’, etc. too often not only damages the impression of the candidates, but it also disrupts effective communication between the interviewer and the interviewee. Thus, candidates may have to pay sincere attention and make efforts to upskill their spoken English to fetch decent marks in the interview. 

Lack of easy and credible resources

Lack of easy and credible resources is indeed a serious issue for candidates seeking to improve their English language skills for judiciary exams. It is extremely important that the candidates prepare for their judiciary exams with reliable and easy-to-understand resources. There is absolutely no use in resorting to very complicated and fancy resources if the candidates are not able to understand them or learn from them. Hence, the availability of easy and credible resources to facilitate candidates’ learning is crucial.

However, such resources are either scarcely available or there is a lack of awareness about them amongst the candidates. Therefore, to resolve this problem and bridge this gap of information, we later discuss the resources that the candidates may have recourse to for the preparation of the English language for the judiciary exams.

Hence, these are the main areas upon which the candidates must spend sufficient and special time and energy, as they may pose hurdles in their preparation of the English language for the judiciary exams.

How to improve english language skills for judicial exams 

Having discussed the significance of English language in the judiciary exams and the prominent challenges that the candidates may face in their efforts to improve their English language skills, we now come to the most important and relevant part, i.e., ways to improve English language skills for judiciary exams. 

Strategies for vocabulary enhancement

It is a general understanding of good English language skills that one should refrain from using repetitive vocabulary too frequently during communication. The relevance of vocabulary cannot indeed be stressed enough. While the same not only adds polish to one’s communication skills in the English language, it is also an infallible way to score high marks in competitive exams like those of judicial services. A strong command of English vocabulary helps the candidates in truly unexpected ways when answering questions in the judiciary exams. Right from answering direct vocabulary questions to facilitating reading comprehension and answer writing, mastery over vocabulary provides an edge to the candidates throughout. Thus, we discuss below the easy and doable techniques to combat the challenge of learning vocabulary to equip the candidates to ace the judiciary exams.

Analysis of past year question papers 

The first and foremost thing that candidates must do to flag off their journey of improving their English language skills for judiciary exams is the analysis of the past year question papers to understand the format of the paper, the topics most frequently asked, and the pattern of questions asked. This should give them a fair idea of how and from where they need to start their preparation. This analysis will also guide their preparation to take it forward in the right direction. 

Techniques for expanding vocabulary 

Vocabulary books

Reading vocabulary books is the simplest yet most effective way for judiciary aspirants to improve their vocabulary. These books not only provide different ways to memorise a wide range of vocabulary, but they also come with practice questions. One of the most famous and widely recommended books to prepare English vocabulary is the book by Norman Lewis: Word Power Made Easy. It is easily available on the market at an affordable price. It is an extremely engaging book written in a conversational style. Quite surely, this book would prove to be immensely helpful for the candidates in their journey of vocabulary learning.

Highlighting new vocabulary

While reading anything, whether a magazine, newspaper, or vocabulary book, the habit of highlighting new vocabulary would be extremely useful to draw attention to the highlighted portion. It helps us focus our attention on a particular point and also helps in memorise things faster. It is a tried and tested formula that whenever the candidates read anything and they find new vocabulary, they should highlight it, search for its meaning, and write it near the highlighted text (if it is possible). This way, they would be able to memorise the word and its meaning for longer. 

There is another modified way to practise this technique for even better results. The candidates must keep highlighters of different colours with them while reading. They should assign each colour to indicate the level of their familiarity with words. 

For instance, if a candidate has highlighters in pink, yellow, and green colours, they can use the pink colour to highlight words they do not know and whose meanings they will have to find out; they can use the yellow highlighter to mark words they know the meaning of but cannot easily recall and will have to look up again; and, lastly, they can use the green one to identify words they are very sure about.

This method is extremely effective, as firstly, the use of different colours tends to make a strong impression on the human mind, so the candidates would be able to remember the words for very long. Secondly, the candidates would be more driven to change the colour of the words from pink and yellow to green, which would help them learn more vocabulary and retain it better.


Mnemonics is the technique of memorising something by attaching some thought or memory to it. It is by far the most effective method to learn something by heart. Given the vastness of English vocabulary and the transient nature of human memory, mnemonics can prove to be a great way to cram up the vocabulary by attaching some other related memory to the words. This technique is invoked by using memory aids, including patterns, associations, or other imaginative devices, so that the new words become more memorable and easier to remember.

The best part about this technique is that there is no rule to govern the way in which connections between the memory and the words are to be made. It is absolutely dependent upon the reader as to how he or she can relate the word to any of his or her memories so that whenever that word comes before him or her, its meaning strikes him or her automatically. The candidates can relate the spelling of the word to something or the sound in which the word is pronounced to something. They may also create mental and visual images and associate the same with a word to make it more memorable. The memory of the word will stick better in the minds of the candidates when the mental picture is vivid. It can literally be anything under the sun to which the candidates can relate different words in order to memorise them. 

For instance, if the candidates are trying to learn the word ‘cacophony,’ which means some harsh sound or noise, they may create a picture of a cactus in their minds with all its sharp thorns to associate the same with the harshness of the sound. This way, they might not forget the word for a very long time. 

Vocabulary journal

A vocabulary journal is the simple technique of maintaining a record of the new vocabulary, its meaning, and its usage whenever the candidates encounter any new words. However, there is much more to it than just writing down words on paper. This technique requires the active participation of the candidates in engaging with new vocabulary. The candidates should spend enough time thinking about every word that is being recorded and include as many elements in their vocabulary journal as possible. 

The candidates may write the following things in their vocabulary journal:

  • meaning of the words, 
  • the usage of the words,
  • examples of the new words, 
  • category of the parts of speech to which the word belongs, and
  • synonyms and antonyms thereof. 

The list is endless. The purpose is to make the candidate fully well-versed in the new vocabulary, its practical usage, and all its forms. 

This record will act as a bank of information for the purpose of revision at the time of the exams. The practice of writing about the new vocabulary will also reinforce the memory of the candidates, and thus, the information will be retained for longer. The same will also be helpful in bringing new words into the active vocabulary of the candidates. In other words, reading new words and their meanings and then also writing about them will make the candidates familiar with them, so they will tend to use them in daily parlance, thereby improving their spoken English as well.

Vocabulary games

Games and sports can make anything easy and fun. Even the challenging task of learning unending English vocabulary can become amusing when learnt through games. Playing vocabulary games is an enjoyable and interactive yet insightful way to improve one’s  vocabulary. These games are not only engaging but also effective in helping the acquisition and retention of new words. These games can either be played alone or with friends. The candidates can try both online and offline games and activities to learn vocabulary. The following vocabulary games can be played by the candidates:

  • English crossword puzzles, wherein a grid has to be filled with different words after reading the given hints. This is easily available in newspapers and magazines. 
  • Scrabble, which allows one to make new words and try their different forms, 
  • Word search is also a useful way to identify different English words and discover new ones. 
  • Taboo is extremely helpful in building strength in English vocabulary. In this game, the candidates have to describe a particular word without using that word itself or other words commonly related to it. The catch of the game lies in the capacity of the individuals to use different words or vocabulary to describe something. 
  • The candidates can also install applications of dictionaries like Merriam-Webster which provide an array of different vocabulary games free of cost. It also presents the word of the day every day and presents the card of a new word each day along with its meaning and usage. 
  • Vocabulary quizzes can also be played either with friends on the basis of their stock knowledge or they can play it on Google also.  

However, it is cautioned that candidates must play these games only for educational purposes. The ultimate purpose of recommending these games is to simplify and make the process of learning interesting. The candidates must not get addicted to these games, as then they may become a source of distraction.

Therefore, there are a variety of vocabulary games the candidates can play to build interest in learning vocabulary and further cultivate command over the same.

Extensive reading

Reading is a very fruitful exercise to build a grip on vocabulary. Voracious reading enables the readers to familiarise themselves with a lot of new English words along with their usage, which expands their existing stock of vocabulary. Synonyms, antonyms, spellings, etc. can be excelled at through extensive reading. Also, when we read avidly, we may come across the same words repeatedly, which can help us memorise those words subconsciously. It is not uncommon to hear from habitual readers that they know and use a lot of words and their usage, but they might not be able to define them as such. This is because when we read these words in a particular context, we can naturally assume their meaning, and hence we use them in day to day conversations. However, to be able to define these words, we may need to consult a dictionary. 

Nevertheless, even a faint idea about the meaning of words can help the judiciary aspirants big time, as we cannot, due to the limitations of human memory, memorise each and every thing. So, with an inkling about the different English words, we can surely eliminate the incorrect options. Moreover, through reading, the candidates can learn different idioms and phrases along with their usage.

Reading not only helps in improving English vocabulary, but it also elevates the comprehension skills of the candidates, which are required to understand and respond to lengthy paragraphs asked in the question paper. 

Therefore, the candidates can prepare for English vocabulary and ace their judiciary exams with these vocabulary acquisition techniques.

Mastery of grammar

The significance and value of English grammar cannot be emphasised enough. It is useful in almost every aspect of judiciary exams. Thus, it becomes crucial that candidates pay sufficient attention and devotion to improve their proficiency in English grammar. The following tips can help the candidates for this purpose.

Grammar books

Again, the simplest yet most impactful technique to learn English grammar is to resort to the old school learning method of reading a grammar book. Arguably, nothing would work better than this. Grammar books would teach English grammar in a systematic and easy manner. However, what is most important here is the choice of grammar book. There are an ample number of English grammar books available in the market; however, not every book can be referred to by the candidates to learn the subject. Rather, they must select a book whose author and publisher are credible and reputed. The candidates can refer to NCERT English grammar books, or they can also read the English grammar book by Wren & Martin. 

Extensive studying 

As stated earlier, extensive reading is a key to learning the English language. Apart from the above-mentioned ways in which reading can be useful for judiciary aspirants, it can truly teach writing skills to the candidates using different rules of grammar. It can present to the candidates the ways in which the rules of English grammar can be used most effectively to write impressively. Reading would illustrate the application of English grammar rules to them, thereby deepening their understanding of the subject. Also, extensive reading subconsciously trains our mind to grammatically correct sentences, so when we encounter any grammatically unsound sentence, we automatically tend to identify the error without even consulting any grammatical rule. So, ultimately, reading is a key to English grammar.

Writing exercises

Mere reading is not sufficient to build a grip over English grammar. The candidates must also practise the implementation of such grammar rules. It is an established fact that writing exercises complement and supplement the learning of English grammar. Writing not only enables us to implement the rules of grammar, but it also facilitates our learning of new rules. It allows us to explore the different ways in which grammar rules can be used to create a diverse variety of meaningful sentences. We truly understand the rules of grammar when we can use them to frame correct English sentences. The judiciary aspirants can practise answer writing or judgement writing, which will help them prepare for both English grammar and English writing. 

Professional courses

The aspirants can also take recourse to professional English language courses, which would formally teach them all the rules of the language. This would be a great option for those who have completely remained out of touch with the English language for a long period of time. The candidates can check out the courses offered by LawSikho, which are composed keeping in mind the factors relevant for people in the legal profession. These are comprehensive courses designed to make the process of learning the English language easy and interesting. The benefit of enrolling in such a professional course for learning the grammar of the English language is that it saves them a plenty of time and effort, which would otherwise be if the candidates decided to learn the language by themselves. Also, though self learning techniques like reading and writing may help in the long run, a professional course will ensure that the language is mastered in a limited time by limiting the consumption of resources to relevant and targeted topics.

Building reading comprehension skills

The skills of reading comprehension are developed with time and consistent effort. It is not a task that can be accomplished overnight. However, it is not an impossible task either. The candidates can cultivate the skills of reading comprehension with dedicated hard work using the following techniques:

  • Active reading: Active reading is fundamental to reading comprehension. It involves annotating alongside the text, summarising, visualising, underlining, taking notes, and questioning while reading a given text. This helps with the critical analysis of the text in the minds of the readers. Active reading is possible only when the candidates dedicate all their attention to reading the text in order to extract not only the textual but also the underlying contextual meaning of the text.
  • Initial skimming: Skimming through the text before a comprehensive reading is super useful in understanding the structure of the text and gaining prima facie insights about the same. This initial step of skimming can help the candidates a lot in situations where there is little time left to pore over the text thoroughly. This step can bring out the main argument of the text in no time. 
  • Discussion on the text: Discussion on the text after reading it can improve its understanding greatly. However, since in exams, discussion is not possible, the candidates must inculcate the habit of introspecting about the text and taking notes thereafter to gain crystal like clarity on the same.
  • Deep analysis of the text: The candidates must also try to uncover the latent meaning of the text, intention of the author, various undercurrents influencing the context of the text, etc. to develop a critical view of the given text. They can also try to identify certain binaries that the text may be establishing implicitly, which may be critically evaluated by them.
  • Practice of reading comprehension: Another way to hone one’s skills in reading comprehension is to read on a daily basis. Also, one must read a variety of texts to build familiarity with them, as the judiciary exam may ask about any particular type of text. The consistent exercise of reading actively will not only increase the reading speed of the candidates but will also shape their comprehension abilities.

Therefore, it is advisable that candidates practise reading comprehension on a daily basis to master reading comprehension using the above techniques.

Developing writing skills

The significance of writing skills in judiciary exams cannot be emphasised enough. The candidates might be required to write essays on a diverse range of topics, summarise lengthy texts into compact paragraphs, arrange jumbled sentences in a meaningful order, etc. to qualify for the judiciary exams. It is also to be kept in mind by the candidates that in judiciary exams, they are not only expected to be proficient in ordinary English but also in legal English, which is like a gloss on the foundational English language skills. The usage of legal phraseology and jargon and the formalistic style of legal writing can fetch brownie points for the candidates. However, the task of building grip over such writing skills may appear to be daunting and overwhelming. To facilitate the process of acquiring such impressive writing skills, the candidates can follow the following techniques: 

  • Extensive reading: At the cost of repetition, the candidates are implored to read extensively to be able to write well. While reading, they must pay attention to the grammar, style of writing, formalistic expressions used in legal writing, and vocabulary. They would also get to observe the different patterns or methods of writing used in legal writing. For example, a very common method of legal writing is IRAC, i.e. Issues, Rule, Application, and Conclusion. This means that whenever the candidates have to write about a legal issue, they must first state the problem, then the law governing that problem, the application of the law to the issue, and then the conclusion. There can be other methods, like an introduction, body, illustrations/ case laws, conclusion, etc., for structuring legal writing, which would improve the writing skills of the candidates.
  • Practice: Practise writing exercises daily. Simply reading is not sufficient, but the candidates must also practise their learning through writing exercises regularly.  The candidates can also get their writing reviewed by a third person, like their friend or teacher, for a third party perspective to get further suggestions and feedback to further improve their writing skills. 
  • Outlining and structuring the text: Before the candidates begin writing, they must sketch out an outline of their answer so that it is coherent. Generally, every answer starts with an introduction to the topic, and after a comprehensive analysis of the issues raised in question, it ends with a conclusion. 

In legal writing, answers must have references to provisions of law or legal concepts by various jurists, illustrations, explanations, case laws, etc. that not only back up the analysis of the candidates but also leave a refined impression on the evaluator. The candidates must also try to establish connections between legal concepts and current issues to show their relevance.

  • The candidates must remember to keep their sentences short and crisp. Lengthy and verbose sentences may not only ruin the flow of the reader but also confuse them. Also, organise your writing into paragraphs with the scheme of ‘one paragraph, one idea’. A paragraph itself must not be very lengthy, and it should be changed at appropriate places. 
  • The candidates must not use abbreviations without mentioning their full form where the word is used for the first time. For instance, if the candidates have to write about PIL in India, they should mention its full form along with the abbreviation first, like Public Interest Litigation (hereinafter referred to as PIL). The candidates must also refrain from using abbreviations that are not commonly used.
  • It is to be kept in mind that the use of flowery and flamboyant language will not make any difference if the content is not promising. Moreover, if the evaluator does not understand such language, it may take a toll on the marks of the candidates. Thus, the candidates should avoid using fancy language and instead focus on delivering solid content with easy and commonly used language and vocabulary. 

Therefore, these are a few tips that the candidates can follow to improve their English writing skills for the judiciary exams.

Tips and tricks for improving english language

Mock tests and practise 

Mock tests are an indispensable part of the preparation journey for any competitive exam. They are important because they can simulate the same experience as that of an actual exam, which works wonders in preparing strategies to excel at it. Most importantly, the analysis of these mock tests can reveal a great deal of information about the important topics that need to be revisited or prepared by the candidates. As regards the English language, the mock tests and analysis thereof can help in acquiring vocabulary and practising writing and reading comprehension skills. 

Time management 

Mock tests will also help the candidates practise proper time management for the exam. Otherwise, the candidates must also strategise the utilisation of the time. More time would be required for the essay type questions and questions relating to paraphrasing, jumbled paragraphs, precis writing, etc., and comparatively less time would be consumed in solving multiple choice questions; thus, accordingly, the time should be devoted by the candidates. A general strategy to save time and score high is that the candidates must first skim through the paper and answer all those questions that they are completely sure about, and then they must proceed to answer those questions that would require contemplation and analysis. This way, the candidates will never miss out on at least the easy questions on the paper. 

Test-taking strategies

It is advisable that the candidates strategise their mock tests to make the best use of them. They must take their mock tests for the same duration as the actual exam so that their brains will be conditioned to work efficiently during that time period. For instance, if the exam is going to take place from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m., the candidates must attempt the mock tests during this time only to get themselves accustomed to working with full concentration for this duration. Moreover, they must analyse the mocks and take notes on the questions asked therein after completion. 

Other strategies 

Reading newspapers, magazines, or novels would be instrumental in refining the English language skills of the judiciary aspirants. They will also help in updating the candidates’ knowledge of current affairs, which form a significant component of the judiciary exams. Similarly, they may take recourse to various social media platforms that facilitate the learning of the English language in an engaging and interesting manner. Even watching English movies and listening to English songs can also upgrade the English language skills of the candidates. 

However, the candidates must ensure that they are using social media or entertainment sources only for informational purposes. It should not become an addiction or a distraction for them. Thus, the bottom line of this learning process is to be in touch with the language as much as possible, so that answers to questions about the language come naturally to the candidates. 


The English language is not the first or second language for many of us, so it is quite natural to falter in it. However, given its importance, it is a significant constituent of many competitive exams in India, including judicial services exams. Thus, it becomes imperative for the aspirants to be proficient in the language. This learning process is time taking and challenging; however, with the right guidance and tips, one can surely ace it. As much as the English language portion of the judicial services exam is difficult, it is also a great avenue for scoring marks. Hence, the candidates must try to learn the language by following the abovementioned techniques to deepen their command of the language and earn high marks in the judiciary exams.

All the very best! 

General FAQs on improving the english language skills in judiciary exams

How much time should one dedicate to the preparation of the english language?

The candidates must set day wise goals for completing the abovementioned syllabus of the English language paper in judiciary exams and study till the goal of the day is achieved. Generally, 2-3 hours of study a day should be sufficient for preparing for this exam. This time period may vary according to the learning capacity of the candidate and the time left for the exam. 

How and from where should one start the preparation?

Starting the preparation of this exam on the right note is important. Thus, firstly, analyse the past year question papers and understand the pattern of questions and important areas for preparation. Thereafter, one should start the preparation by studying the topic one finds the most engaging. Take mock tests and practise questions to build interest first, and then engage in the rest of the preparation for the subject.

Is there any recommended source for preparing the english language?

As stated above, the candidates may refer to books like the NCERT English grammar books, the English Grammar book by Wren & Martin, and the book by Norman Lewis: Word Power Made Easy. Apart from this, they can read renowned and credible English newspapers, focusing mainly on the editorial portions thereof.

What are the important english language topics that one must cover?

Although it is recommended that the candidates cover the entire syllabus of the English language paper as mentioned above, there are certain topics that they cannot afford to miss. These topics include essay writing, precis writing, grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehensions, translations, subject-verb agreement, etc. These must be prepared comprehensively by the candidates, as they are frequently asked in the judiciary exams. 

How can I use social media to prepare for the english language?

As mentioned above, social media can prove to be useful in preparing for the judiciary exams. The candidates can rely on reliable educational and informative websites, social media pages, YouTube channels, etc. that teach vocabulary, tips for answer writing, or communication skills for the interview. There are many channels on social media that also teach non-verbal communication tips for excelling in the interview. However, the candidates should be careful not to develop an addiction to social media while using it for infotainment purposes.

Can I prepare for the english language paper of the judicial services exam by myself? 

Yes, the preparation of the English language paper for the judicial services exam can be done by following a study schedule prepared by following the above strategies. 

FAQs on the strategies to attempt the english language section in judiciary exams

How do I manage time while attempting the section on the english language?

As said above, first, the candidates must attempt those questions that can be easily answered in less time. Thereafter, the lengthy and descriptive questions must be attempted by the candidates to save time and take the exam efficiently.

How do I eliminate incorrect options?

There can be two ways in which the incorrect options can be eliminated by the candidates: 

  • first, either the candidates would directly know that certain options are clearly incorrect and so would eliminate them; 
  • second, if possible, the candidates can eliminate the options by understanding the context. If certain options are completely unfit according to the context, then they can be outright eliminated.

FAQs on the writing component of english language section in judicial exams

How do I write eloquently in the judiciary exams?

To write eloquently, the candidates must first decide on an outline for their essay or answer. An outline would determine the scope of the answer, and then the relevant content must be filled in by the candidates. The answers or any piece of writing on that matter must necessarily commence with a brief introduction of the topic and end with an encapsulating conclusion establishing the final remarks of the author on that point. Moreover, the candidates should use easy and simple language and explain the concepts through illustrations, case laws, and the relevant law. The matter should be written in grammatically correct language with proper spelling and vocabulary.

What are the things to keep in mind while attempting the writing components of the English language section in judiciary exams?

There are a couple of things that a candidate should keep in mind while attempting the writing component. For instance, the grammar must be correctly used, the spellings should not be incorrect, and the crispness, coherence, and relevance of the matter must be maintained throughout. This will ensure that the candidates fetch good marks for the writing component.

How do I prepare for the translation questions?

For translation questions, it is important that candidates prepare not only the English language but also the other language from or into which the sentences will be translated (e.g., English to Hindi) or retranslated (e.g., Hindi to English), respectively. Therefore, the candidates should study from the diglot versions (for example, bare acts both in English and Hindi) of the bare acts so that they remain in touch with both languages. They can also refer to a relevant dictionary for this purpose. 

FAQs on the reading component of english language section in judiciary exams

How do I read quickly?

Reading is an extremely important component of the judiciary exams. Reading quickly will save a lot of time, which could be used by the candidates to answer difficult or lengthy questions. However, the ability to read quickly comes after a lot of reading practice. Nevertheless, they can follow this quick tip that wherever the language is very easy, just start skimming through those portions, but as jargon or typical language starts appearing, go slow and try to understand the text deeply. 

How do I improve reading comprehension?

As stated earlier, reading comprehension can be mastered only with assiduous practise of the same. So, without any shortcuts, the candidates must build the habit of reading voraciously every day. Read different kinds of texts and adopt the practice of active reading, as explained above. These tips will surely improve the reading comprehension skills of the candidates.

FAQs on the vocabulary component of english language section in judiciary exams

How do I memorise unending vocabulary?

It is absolutely true that vocabulary is unending, and it is a painstaking task to memorise the same. It is equally true that knowing all the vocabulary is not possible. However, the candidates’ aim should be to know the commonly used vocabulary. For the same, the candidates can try different creative methods like vocabulary games, journaling, mnemonics, etc. to learn vocabulary. All such techniques have been described above.

Do I need extensive active vocabulary for judiciary exams?

The knowledge of vocabulary of any individual can be classified into the categories of passive and active. Passive vocabulary is that knowledge of vocabulary that an individual may have but does not actively use in day-to-day parlance. 

On the other hand, active vocabulary is the knowledge of vocabulary that the candidates use in their daily speech. Merely passive vocabulary is not sufficient for judiciary aspirants, and they must have extensive active vocabulary so that they can answer the questions with full understanding, read and understand the text, and also write in an articulate manner.  

How do I upgrade my active vocabulary?

Active vocabulary can be improved by conscious application of the vocabulary learnt. The candidates must practise answer or judgement writing using the bank of vocabulary information that they must have gathered by reading. While practising for the interview stage, they must also try to articulate using appropriate and accurate words. If the candidates have adopted the technique of vocabulary journaling, then they must write two to three examples of every new word to understand the same in and out and to be able to use them actively in routine communication.

Is it necessary to use advanced vocabulary in judiciary exams to score well?

It is a general myth that the use of advanced and fancy vocabulary leads to good marks and impressions. However, contrary to this popular notion, the usage of simple and easy to understand vocabulary that can fully capture the intended meaning of the author and explain the same to the readers is valued the most. It is to be remembered that judiciary exams are not creative writing competitions; they instead aim to test the knowledge of the candidates and their ability to express it. Ultimately, the judicial officers will have to deal with ordinary people who may not be very conversant with the English language; thus, if the candidates are not able to express themselves simply, their advanced vocabulary and language skills will not be much use. Thus, the candidates must focus on building vocabulary, but they should not unnecessarily complicate their writing or speech just to flaunt their vocabulary. Rather, keep it simple and meaningful.

How do I improve my english pronunciation?

Candidates should also pay attention to their pronunciation, as the same will be evaluated in the interview. To improve pronunciation, the candidates must not forget to check the same when they search for the meaning of a new word. They can also mention some other word whose pronunciation they know to indicate the pronunciation of a word.

For example, to understand the pronunciation of the word ‘bow’, we may write ‘cow’ beside it to signify that both words are similarly pronounced. 

FAQs on the grammar component of english language section in judiciary exams

How do I remember the grammar rules?

There is no shortcut to remembering the grammar rules. The candidates have to understand them, and with continuous usage thereof, they will automatically become familiar. The candidates must, however, be selective about the source from which they study English grammar. As said earlier, the sources must be credible and insightful. Some of the credible sources can be found here.

How should one understand complicated grammar questions?

Complicated grammar questions will become understandable by the candidates only when they are familiar with the grammar rules. Moreover, familiarity with such questions can also be developed through mock tests and practice worksheets. Thus, the candidates must first do the homework of studying the grammar rules, and then they must practise them over and over to gain familiarity with the types of questions asked in the judiciary exams.

What are the unmissable grammar topics for judiciary exam preparation?

As reinforced time and again in this article, the candidates must first try to complete the whole syllabus and not leave any topic. However, if there is paucity of time or the candidates need to revise certain important topics, they must definitely cover topics such as parts of speech, subject-verb agreement, tenses, word formation, sentences, and idioms and phrases. This should give them a fair idea of the grammar rules commonly asked in judiciary exams.

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