Externment and the Indian Constitution : a critical analysis considering the golden triangle of the Indian Constitution.
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This article is written by Sakshi Tripathi from Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan. This article talks about the judgement given by the Karnataka High Court in respect to the mid-day meal served in the schools. 


On August 15 1995, the Government of India propelled the National Program of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) as a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme. It was started to upgrade enrolment, maintenance and participation and at the same time progressing nutritional level among children. At first, in 1995, it was introduced in 2408 blocks within the nation, and by 1997-98 the NP-NSPE was presented in all blocks. Under this program, cooked mid-day meals were to be presented in all Government, Government aided and nearby local schools for children at the primary level. The Supreme Court gave the states a wake-up call on November 28, 2001, directing the state governments/ union territories to implement the mid-day meal scheme by giving each child in each Government and Government-aided primary school. With an arranged mid-day meal with the least substance of 300 calories and 8-12 grams of proteins each day of school for at least 200 days inside six months.

The Government of India in 2004 restored the scheme after few states presented mid-day meals before the Supreme Court’s under the rules of MDM. According to these new rules, MDM was executed entirely in 20 states and all seven union territories and mainly within the remaining eight states (Assam, Bihar, Goa, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal). The program was expanded to all zones over the nation from 2008-09. The calorific value of a mid-day meal at the upper primary stage had been settled at least 700 calories and 20 grams of protein by giving 150 grams of food grains (rice/wheat) per child/school day. 

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Contribution of centre and state in the program

Whereas the scheme’s implementation rests with the state government, MDM is a centrally-sponsored scheme that suggests that the central Government gives more financial assistance for running the scheme than the contribution of the state governments. In most states centre’s share is 60 percent, whereas the State’s share is 40 percent. In the Northeast and other particular states, the contribution is 90 percent and 10 percent, respectively. The scheme is financed 100 per cent by the Central Government in all union territories. Apart from budgetary help, the central Government also empowers the states and U.T.s to secure foodgrains developed locally for nearby taste and nutritional value from the central government buffer stock made by it.

Article 21 of the Constitution and mid-day meal – the complimentary members 

This circumstance of not providing the mid-day meal is a gross infringement of the fundamental rights of children. Under Article 21 of the Constitution, all Indian children have a fundamental right to life. Moreover, as the Supreme Court has made clear on a few events, the right to live is a right to live with dignity, incorporating the right to food and related necessities. Beneath Article 21A of the Constitution, Indian children are entitled to free and compulsory education from 6 to 14. Moreover, these rights are suggested by the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, to which India is a signatory. 

The well being of children is everyone’s duty – not only of their guardians. Without a doubt, guardians alone are not continuously able to secure their children’s interests, particularly when they are weighed down by poverty, lack of education, poor wellbeing and social discrimination. Usually, one reason why the assurance of children’s rights depends vitally on social courses of action, such as universal schooling. The State regularly starts these courses of action, but their viability depends in numerous ways on the inclusion of the public at large. For instance, the victory of a village school depends a great deal on what the teachers, the guardians, the Gram Panchayat and the village community do for it. Even the physical presence of a school frequently requires an organized request from the village community in the first place.

The provision of cooked, nutritious midday meals in primary schools is another illustration of a social course of action adapted to the assurance of children’s rights. Their primary objective is to advance the right to food and education, but they can also serve numerous other valuable purposes. Nowadays, each child who goes to a government or government-assisted primary school is entitled to a nutritious midday meal, as per later Supreme Court orders. In any case, this privilege is distant from being realized: the scope of midday meals is close to widespread, but their quality is still exceptionally very low in most of the states. 


It implies that each citizen has a right to be protected from starvation and undernutrition. The right to food places an obligation on the State to guarantee that everybody is well nourished. This could be done through different implications: land reform, the public distribution framework, an Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 and nutrition schemes for children, among others. These steps complement each other – no single mediation can guarantee that the correct nourishment is completely figured out.

Right to education

Each Indian child is entitled to “free and compulsory education” from 6 to 14. This has recently become a “fundamental right” beneath Article 21A of the Constitution. The State, subsequently, must encourage free education for all children and guarantee that each one of them goes to school on a daily and regular basis.

Midday meals contribution to the right to food and the right to education  

A healthy midday meal can offer assistance to secure children from starvation and to provide supplementary nutrition. Mid-day meals are not enough to ensure the right to food provided to children under the Constitution of India, but they are a crucial step towards it. So, cooked midday meals contribute to education by encouraging regular school participation and upgrading children’s learning capacities. In expansion, midday meals serve numerous other vital purposes, such as cultivating social correspondence and making a difference to confer sustenance instruction to schoolchildren.

Every school-going child entitled to a nutritious midday meal

Each child who goes to a “government or government-assisted” primary school is entitled to a nutritious, cooked midday meal. This incorporates the Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative and Innovative Education (AIE) centres and Madrasas/Maqtabs, which fall within the category of Government aided schools.

Analysing the Karnataka High Court order 

The Karnataka High Court expressed doubt about the state government’s proposal to revive schools in the case of Radha M & Ors. v. State of Karnataka & Ors while withholding mid-day meals in schools located in zones that had recorded a spike in cases of COVID-19. A divisional bench of Judges B.V. Nagarathna and N.S. Sanjay Gowda rejected the Karnataka government’s contention that the mid-day meal scheme was not continued in certain schools close to the Kerala-Karnataka border owing to a rise in coronavirus cases. The court was hearing the request in response to a supplication recorded by Radha M looking for headings to the state government to supply mid-day meals to students from classes 6 to 8 after regular schools had re-opened within the State. “From a year people were aware of the result. Still, there is no plan made till now. If permission is given for opening schools, it also permits assemblage. If you will be able to allow that, at this point, then why can’t you begin mid-day meals,” Justice Nagarathna said.

The division bench further noted that access to mid-day meals was a portion of the fundamental right to education beneath Article 21A since students may not be expected to consider empty stomachs. “Right to Education is a Fundamental right beneath Article 21A. The provision of a mid-day meal will become a fundamental right, as you cannot ask them to study on an empty stomach,” the bench remarked, “Though it is within the shape of a scheme, eventually we will need to make it a Fundamental Right. No one can study on a hungry stomach.” The Karnataka government told the court that dry proportions would be given to children till April 10, whereas the State was awaiting directions from the Centre on re-starting the mid-day meal scheme for the development of the children.

Benefits of the order 

This pioneering move by the Government of Karnataka to create NGOs, the executive arm of the Government, has been one of the primary reasons for its victory in coming to the programme’s objectives. The accomplishments of these private-public organizations have indeed impacted the Central Government. By setting up and empowering private-public associations, the Government is effectively leveraging the abilities and assets of the private division for the more prominent good. India’s Midday Meal Scheme is one of the most extensive school lunch programs globally, profiting 9.78-crore children in 11.40-lakh schools.

The main benefit of the mid-may meal are as follows:

  • To avoid classroom hunger;
  • To increase school enrolment;
  • To increase school attendance;
  • To improve socialization among castes;
  • To address malnutrition; and
  • To empower women through employment.

Most of the schools collected plates, tumblers, cookers, blender processors for MDM by local benefactors. Children are consuming milk and milk items given to them by the milk federation. Since more cattle are raising and feeding in rural parts, the dairy milk supply is also good. In a school close to the temple, children get coconut and jaggery utilized for Mid Day Meals arrangement, including superior taste and nutrition.

The necessity for implementation 

  1. Under the program, the GOI can guarantee that each of the children who have a place in the less privileged community of society should be given nutritious food. This will offer assistance in progressing the child’s health status at the initial stage of his or her life.
  2. As run by the GOI, the program is additionally pointed at empowering more children from low-income families to go to standard school daily. The provision will moreover advantage the number of students who have a place in the impeded segments of the society such that they may be constrained to go to the regular schools.
  3. As the children are given good nourishment inside the school itself, it is clear that they will also pay more attention to their studies.
  4. The program is also exceptionally successful in running out the education program by the GOI in ranges that have been worst influenced by normal calamities such as dry season and floods.

A massive health checkup program of all students of 1 to 10 standards studying in Government, Government Aided, and unaided schools is obligatory conducted beneath “Suvarna Arogya Chaitanya Programme“. By maintaining health cards of children amid the month of august from 1 st to 31st each year. SSA has contributed health cards. In case of any genuine health issue, the student is given appropriate medical treatment free of cost. This program is being conducted in cooperation with the Health and Family Welfare division supported by NHM. The treatment is given in Yeshasvini network hospitals. This program will proceed, and extra supplement tablets are disseminated to all the children of MDM Schools.

Prescribed nutritional content per meal per child

The mid-day meal guidelines guarantee that the meal is planned so that children get an adequate sum of proteins, carbohydrates, and micronutrients, such as iron and folic acid. The point is to help within the physical development and cognitive advancement of children. The meal comprises cooked rice or wheat (depending on the local staple), blended with lentils or jaggery, and supplemented with oil, vegetables, natural products, nuts, eggs or dessert at the local level. According to MHRD, the children in essential school must be given at least 450 calories with 12 grams of protein through MDM, whereas the children in upper essential schools get 700 calories with 20 grams of protein.

The children of primary classes are entitled to 100 grams of foodgrains, 20 grams of beats, 50 grams of vegetables and 5 grams of oils and fats. The children of upper-primary schools, on the other hand, are entitled to get 150 grams of foodgrains, 30 grams of pulses,7-5 grams of vegetables and 7.5 grams of oils and fats.


The mid-day meals is a particular subsidized program run solely by the central Government and state government in coordination of health and educational divisions on a much more extensive scale than any other such program. The Government expects that running such a program can centre on making strides in general education evaluated on the national stage, particularly in towns and inaccessible ranges of the country where the absence of education rates is much higher. The Mid Day Meal Scheme is a good initiative of the Government of India. Due to malnutrition, the violation of the right to life of the children takes place. Precautionary measures should be taken to maintain a strategic distance from nourishment poisoning cases that abuse Article 21 of the Constitution of India and Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).


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