In this blog post, Surbhi Agarwal, a student at UPES, Dehradun, and pursuing the Diploma in Entrepreneurship Administration and Business Laws by NUJS, describes the procedure for starting small scale industries in India.
Small Scale Industries are those industrial undertakings having a fixed investment in plant and machinery, whether held on an ownership basis or a lease basis or a hire purchase basis and not exceeding Rs.1 crore. It has a larger contribution to the growth of an economy. However, this investment money is varied by the Government from time to time.
A small scale unit is normally a one-man show and even in the case of a partnership the activities are mainly carried out by the active partner and the rest are sleeping partners. The area of operation of small units is localized, catering to the local or regional demand. Small industries are fairly intensive with comparatively smaller capital investment than the larger units. Therefore, these units are more suited for economics where capital is scarce, and there is an abundant supply of labor. The Ministry of Small Scale Industries has now merged with the Ministry of Agro and Rural Industries to form the Ministry of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME).
Registration of Small Scale Industries
One of the advantages of small scale industries is that they are more flexible to adapt to changes to the new method of production, the introduction of new products, etc. Small scale units as compared to large scale units are more change susceptible and highly reactive and responsive to socio-economic conditions. The objective of small scale industries is to adapt to the latest technology and to produce better quality products at lower costs.
Even in this type of business, registration is voluntary and not compulsory. But, its registration with the State Directorate or Commissioner of industries or DIC’s makes the unit eligible for availing different types of Government assistance like financial assistance from the Department of Industries, medium and long terms loans from State Financial Corporations and other commercial banks, machinery on hire-purchase basis from the National Small Industries Corporation, etc.
Two types of registration are done in all States.
- Firstly, a provisional registration certificate is given, i.e., valid for normally five years and after the commencement of production, a permanent certificate is given, i.e., in perpetuity.
- Once the company is being registered as an SSI, it can avail several benefits such as cheap Bank Finance, exemption from Sales Tax, exemption from Excise Duty, ease in getting licenses and permissions, capital subsidy, ISO-9000 Certification reimbursement, reduced customs duty and several other benefits provided by the State Government.
Procedures for Setting Up of a Small Scale Business
Small Scale Business provides more independence than the large scale business and through this type of business one can fulfill their dream to become an entrepreneur. It eliminates much of the overhead expense and extensive planning required in larger business ventures. One can set up small-scale industries by following the simple procedures, which are as follows:
Decision Making: First of all, you need to prepare the description for the small scale industry you want to set up. It is necessary to decide whether you wish to set up a corporation, proprietorship or partnership. The potential entrepreneur has to analyze his strength, weakness while deciding for entrepreneur career. This analysis helps in knowing what type and size of business would be the most suitable.
Scanning Of Business Environment: Before setting up your industry, it is always essential to study and understand the prevailing business environment in which they operate particularly the industrial policy, economic policy, licensing policy, legal environment, and technological environment. The environment impacts a lot in setting up a proper industry.
Product Selection: You need to decide the product you wish to manufacture or the service you wish to offer. While choosing the product or service you want to offer, you must conduct a good market research and learn about the prevailing competition in the market.
Location: You need to choose a location to set up your small scale industry. While choosing the location such factors such as nearness to market, sources of material availability of raw materials, labor, transportation services, modern infrastructural facilities and other things are considered. Location determines the success or failure of the enterprise.
Technology: To manufacture any item, technology is used. The entrepreneur should collect information on all available technologies, and the most suitable one should be identified. This will also be useful to determine the type of machinery and equipment to be installed.
Project: Project appraisal means the assessment of a project. It is a technique for ex-ante analysis of a scheme or project while preparing to set up an enterprise; the entrepreneur has to appraise the project carefully from the standpoint of economic, financial, technical, market, social and managerial aspects to arrive at the most socially-feasible enterprise.
Finance: Finance is the lifeblood of the enterprise. So, the next big step is to arrange for finance. No business can be created, with zero capital. If you don’t have enough finance and then the best way is to borrow or take a loan.
Provisional Registration: It is always worthwhile to get the unit registered with the government. The entrepreneur has to obtain the prescribed application from DIC or Directorate of Industries. After having duly filled in the application form, he has to submit the application with all relevant documents in the local DIC or Directorate of Industries.
Production Management: Production management is the next step, once you can start your small scale industry. This includes allocating space for different operations and choosing your production methods. You are required to purchase machinery and hire employees and workers for different departments.
Power And Water Connection: The sites where the enterprise will be located should either have adequate power connections, or it should be arranged. The entrepreneur can calculate the total power requirement and determine the nearest pole from which power will be given to the enterprise, as it can materially affect the installation cost.
Installation Of Machinery: Once the above formalities have been completed; the next step is to procure machinery and begin its installation as per the plant layout.
Insurance: It is necessary to have adequate insurance for fixed assets at this stage and later on for the current assets as well.
Recruitment Of Manpower: Once machines are installed, the need for manpower arises to run them. So, the quantum and type of manpower are to be decided. The sources of getting desired labor are also important. This follows the recruitment, training, and placement.
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Production: The unit established should have an organizational set-up. To operate optimally, the organization should employ its manpower, machinery, and methods effectively. There should not be any wastage of manpower, machinery, and materials. If items are exported, then the product and its packaging must be attractive.
Marketing: Marketing is the most important activity as far as the entrepreneurial development is concerned. Marketing and business advertising form the next big step of setting up a small scale industry. Online business directories and various traditional forms of advertising can gain exposure for your business. Prices for your products or services are decided to keep in mind the profit margin.
Quality Assurance: Before marketing, the product quality certification from BIS (Bureau of Indian Standard)/ AGMARK/HALLMARK, etc., should be obtained depending upon the product. If there are no quality standards specified for the products, the entrepreneur should evolve his quality control parameters.
Permanent Registration: After the small scale unit goes into production and marketing, it becomes eligible to get permanent registration based on its provisional registration from the DIC or Directorate of Industries.
Market Research: Once the product or service is introduced in the market, there is strong need for continuous market research to assess needs and areas for modification, up gradation and growth.
Monitoring: Periodical monitoring and evaluation not only of markets but also production, quality, and profitability help in knowing where the firm stands in comparison to performance envisaged in the business plan. It also identifies the direction of future growth. Therefore, planning is a useful aspect of setting up a small scale. According to business, at every stage, you are required to improve your plan.
It can be concluded that setting up small scale industries is not a difficult task. The procedure of small scale industries is simple and easy than the large scale industries. So, if one wants to set up an industry, one can surely go for it. It is profitable, easier and helps in the growth of the economy of the country.
 Available at: http://taxguru.in/corporate-law/procedure-ssi-small-scale-industries-registration-punjab.html (Last visited on 28.5.2016).
 Available at http://b2binformation.blogspot.com/2010/12/what-are-steps-to-set-up-small-scale.html (last visited on 28.5.2016).